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Pigeons responded on fixed-ratio schedules ending in small or large reinforcers (grain presentations of different duration) interspersed within each session. In mixed-schedule conditions, the response key was lit with a single color throughout the session, and pausing was directly related to the past reinforcer (longer pauses after large reinforcers than(More)
  • K R Courtney
  • 1975
A new lidocaine derivative (Astra, GEA 968) depresses excitability of myelinated frog nerve in a manner which depends upon the rate of use of the nerve. This phenomenon has been shown, under voltage clamp conditions, to involve "frequency-" or "use-dependent" inhibition of the transient inward sodium currents at the node of Ranvier. With 0.6 mM GEA 968 in(More)
  • K R Courtney
  • 1980
Different local anesthetic drug structures differ significantly in their capabilities for producing frequency (f)-dependent sodium channel block. Voltage-clamped frog myelinated nerve preparations have been utilized in order to investigate structure-activity relations for several modes of local anesthetic drug action, including the kinetics of f-dependent(More)
Excitable membranes exposed to sodium channel blocking agents (D; local anesthetics and antiarrhythmic drugs) show a progressive reduction of peak sodium current when repetitively depolarized (use dependence). Thus, with repetitive excitation, use dependence reflects a net rightward shift in the balance between unblocked channels (U) and blocked channels(More)
The Hodgkin-Huxley kinetic parameters, alpha h and beta h, which govern the rate of recovery from and development of sodium channel inactivation, respectively, have been measured as a function of membrane potential and external pH using a three-pulse protocol. alpha h but not beta h is substantially accelerated by reducing external pH from 7.4 to 6.4. The(More)
We have looked at several anticonvulsant drugs regarding their potency for basal block of sodium channels in both skeletal muscle and myelinated nerve preparations under voltage clamp conditions. There is an inverse relationship observed between the half-blocking concentration of each drug and its lipid distribution coefficient. Furthermore the(More)
Voltage clamp experiments were carried out on Rana catesbiana nodes of Ranvier in order to test predictions regarding the relationship between local anesthetic lipid solubility and the rate of development of and recovery from frequency-dependent increments of sodium channel block. Contrary to expectations, the drugs of greater lipid solubility than(More)
Rats' presses on one lever canceled shocks programmed after variable cycles, while presses on a second lever occasionally produced a 2-min timout during which the shock-delection schedule was suspended and its correlated stimuli removed. These concurrent schedules of avoidance and timeout were embedded in a multiple schedule whose components differed,(More)
Single sodium channel openings have been recorded from cell-attached patches of isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes. A paired pulse protocol was used to test the hypothesis that channel openings are required for lidocaine block. While the averaged ensemble current during the test pulse was much reduced, there was no correlation between the appearance(More)