Kyle A. Arnoldi

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The two most commonly used methods for determining the AC/A ratio are the Gradient Method and the Clinical Method. Though both methods are simple, practical, and often used interchangeably, they are really quite different. The Gradient AC/A measures the amount of convergence generated by a diopter of accommodative effort, while the Clinical Method detects(More)
A small number of children who develop disconjugate nystagmus, torticollis, and head titubation (spasmus nutans) have been found to have optic chiasm or third ventricle gliomas. However, the prevalence of glioma or other developmental abnormalities in this disorder is unknown because no large series of spasmus nutans cases has previously been reported. A(More)
INTRODUCTION Orthoptic exercises have been the primary treatment for convergence insufficiency since this condition's first description in 1855. It is presumed that exercises work by improving fusional convergence. In recent years, research from eye movement laboratories has challenged our theories on the nature and dynamics of convergence, the effect of(More)
The prevalence of significant lateral incomitance in patients with nonparetic exotropia is reported to be 22%. We speculated that measurement artifact may be the cause for some cases of apparent lateral incomitance. We measured the effective power of plastic ophthalmic prisms using a helium-neon laser in the frontal plane position and at 10 degrees, 20(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness of strabismus surgery as an alternative treatment for high accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio (nonrefractive accommodative) esotropia. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-three consecutive children with an AC/A ratio of 5:1 or greater and a distance-near disparity of 10 prism diopters (PD)(More)
BACKGROUND The double Maddox rod test, based on a red Maddox rod in front of one eye and a clear Maddox rod in front of the other, is used to measure cyclodeviation, typically in patients with superior oblique muscle pareses. Discrepant results between the double Maddox rod test and other torsion measures, and reports of "paradoxic" cyclodeviation in the(More)
Anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC) is the mechanism that functionally links noncorresponding retinal elements in the visual cortex to allow single binocular vision in the strabismic patient. Surgical correction of the strabismus in patients with ARC may lead to temporary paradoxical diplopia. ARC may be diagnosed prior to surgery by revealing a faulty(More)
INTRODUCTION Management of high AC/A includes bifocal lenses, single-vision distance lenses, and surgery. Our goal was to determine the long-term outcome of single-vision lenses (SVL) for high AC/A esotropia compared with normal AC/A ET. METHODS This retrospective study included patients with accommodative esotropia managed with SVL and a minimum 5 years(More)
INTRODUCTION Bifocals have been the standard of care for pure high AC/A esotropia for over 100 years, though surgery for the near esotropia is being offered more and more frequently. There has been no long term study comparing the effects of bifocals and surgery with a control group prescribed single vision lenses for the distance hyperopia. PURPOSE This(More)
Traditional teaching on anomalous retinal correspondence (ARC) identifies the dissociative quality of a sensory test as the primary factor influencing the outcome of correspondence testing. However, these tests differ also in function and format. This study compared one mildly dissociating test and one highly dissociating test to evaluate the subjective(More)