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The heated cigarette (HC) generates mainstream smoke by vaporizing the components of the tobacco rod using a carbon heat source at the cigarette tip. Mainstream smoke of HC contains markedly less chemical constituents compared to combusted cigarettes. Mainstream smoke from HC was generated under Health Canada Intense regimen and its biological effects were(More)
Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common contaminant of drinking water, is oxidized by high-affinity, low-capacity cytochrome P450 isozymes and subsequently converted to metabolites, some of which are carcinogenic in mice and rats. Although the initial oxidation step is known to be rate-limiting and saturable, the oral dosage-range over which saturation(More)
A series of in vitro and in vivo studies evaluated the potential effects of tobacco flavoring and casing ingredients. Study 1 utilized as a reference control cigarette a typical commercial tobacco blend without flavoring ingredients, and a test cigarette containing a mixture of 165 low-use flavoring ingredients. Study 2 utilized the same reference control(More)
Male C57Bl/6 (C57) and ICR mice were exposed by nose-only inhalation to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) from 2R4F reference cigarettes, at concentrations of 75, 250, and 600 microg of total particulate matter (TPM) per liter, for up to 6 mo. Respiratory-tract tissue (nose, larynx, and lung), blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were(More)
2-Butoxyethanol (2BE) is used extensively in the production of cleaning agents and solvents. It is primarily metabolized in the liver to 2-butoxyacetic acid (2BAA), which is believed to be responsible for 2BE toxicities associated with hemolysis of red blood cells. The objective of the study was to characterize the systemic disposition of 2BE and 2BAA in(More)
Pulmonary emphysema is a major component of the morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Currently there are no predictive biomarkers for COPD. Initial steps toward identifying potentially predictive biomarkers involve utilizing well-characterized mainstream smoke (MS) exposure conditions (dose-response) to identify changes(More)
The toxicity of carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) and certain other chemicals varies over a 24-h period. Because the metabolism of some drugs follows a diurnal rhythm, it was decided to investigate whether the hepatic metabolic activation of CCl(4) was rhythmic and coincided in time with maximum susceptibility to CCl(4) hepatotoxicity. A related objective was(More)
2-Butoxyethanol (2BE) is used extensively in the production of cleaning agents and as a general solvent. It is primarily metabolized in the liver to 2-butoxyacetic acid (2BAA), which is excreted in urine. The objective of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model describing the toxicokinetic behavior of 2BE and 2BAA in(More)
Modern cigarette production processes are highly automated and yield millions of cigarettes per day. The forming cigarette and its components contact many different materials in the production process, some of which may leave minute residues. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, plastic, cardboard and other materials(More)
This paper reports on the thermogelling, biodegradable polymer formulations based on poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)/(poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers for in vivo biomedical applications using animal models. The description includes diabetic control by sustained insulin delivery and cartilage repair by chondrocyte cell delivery. With one(More)