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Animals from flies to humans are able to distinguish subtle gradations in temperature and show strong temperature preferences. Animals move to environments of optimal temperature and some manipulate the temperature of their surroundings, as humans do using clothing and shelter. Despite the ubiquitous influence of environmental temperature on animal(More)
Chemical nociception, the detection of tissue-damaging chemicals, is important for animal survival and causes human pain and inflammation, but its evolutionary origins are largely unknown. Reactive electrophiles are a class of noxious compounds humans find pungent and irritating, such as allyl isothiocyanate (in wasabi) and acrolein (in cigarette smoke).(More)
Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral(More)
Discriminating among sensory stimuli is critical for animal survival. This discrimination is particularly essential when evaluating whether a stimulus is noxious or innocuous. From insects to humans, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are key transducers of thermal, chemical and other sensory cues. Many TRPs are multimodal receptors that respond to(More)
Citronellal, a well-known plant-derived mosquito repellent, was previously reported to repel Drosophila melanogaster via olfactory pathways involving but not directly activating Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Here, we show that citronellal is a direct agonist for Drosophila and human TRPA1s (dTRPA1 and hTRPA1) as well as Anopheles gambiae(More)
The ability to sense and respond to subtle variations in environmental temperature is critical for animal survival. Animals avoid temperatures that are too cold or too warm and seek out temperatures favorable for their survival. At the molecular level, members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels contribute to thermosensory(More)
Orcokinins are neuropeptides that have been identified in diverse arthropods. In some species, an orcokinin gene encodes two isoforms of mature orcokinin peptide through alternative mRNA splicing. The existence of two orcokinin isoforms was predicted in Drosophila melanogaster as well, but the expression pattern of both isoforms has not been characterized.(More)
CD11b+ monocytic/macrophagic cells (Mo/Mph), which infiltrate into skin after UV irradiation, play an important role in UV-induced immunosuppression. Because in mice, blockade of CD11b (iC3b receptor) on monocytes and depletion of its ligand, iC3b, reverses UV-induced immunosuppression, we asked whether iC3b is deposited in human skin after UV, and whether(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Since opposing vasoactive effects have been reported for H2O2 depending on the vascular bed and experimental conditions, this study was performed to assess whether H2O2 acts as a vasodilator in the rat mesenteric artery and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanisms. H2O2(More)
The expression of specific transcription factors determines the differentiated features of postmitotic neurons. However, the mechanism by which specific molecules determine neuronal cell fate and the extent to which the functions of transcription factors are conserved in evolution are not fully understood. In C. elegans, the cholinergic and peptidergic SMB(More)