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Animals from flies to humans are able to distinguish subtle gradations in temperature and show strong temperature preferences. Animals move to environments of optimal temperature and some manipulate the temperature of their surroundings, as humans do using clothing and shelter. Despite the ubiquitous influence of environmental temperature on animal(More)
Chemical nociception, the detection of tissue-damaging chemicals, is important for animal survival and causes human pain and inflammation, but its evolutionary origins are largely unknown. Reactive electrophiles are a class of noxious compounds humans find pungent and irritating, such as allyl isothiocyanate (in wasabi) and acrolein (in cigarette smoke).(More)
Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral(More)
Discriminating among sensory stimuli is critical for animal survival. This discrimination is particularly essential when evaluating whether a stimulus is noxious or innocuous. From insects to humans, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are key transducers of thermal, chemical and other sensory cues. Many TRPs are multimodal receptors that respond to(More)
A mechanistic understanding of animal navigation requires quantitative assessment of the sensorimotor strategies used during navigation and quantitative assessment of how these strategies are regulated by cellular sensors. Here, we examine thermotactic behavior of the Drosophila melanogaster larva using a tracking microscope to study individual larval(More)
The Na+/Ca2+-K+ exchanger (NCKX) gene products are polytopic membrane proteins that utilize the existing cellular Na+ and K+ gradients to extrude cytoplasmic Ca2+. NCKX proteins are made up of two clusters of hydrophobic segments, both thought to consist of five putative membrane-spanning alpha-helices, and separated by a large cytoplasmic loop. The two(More)
Citronellal, a well-known plant-derived mosquito repellent, was previously reported to repel Drosophila melanogaster via olfactory pathways involving but not directly activating Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Here, we show that citronellal is a direct agonist for Drosophila and human TRPA1s (dTRPA1 and hTRPA1) as well as Anopheles gambiae(More)
Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox) kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid(More)
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. Since opposing vasoactive effects have been reported for H2O2 depending on the vascular bed and experimental conditions, this study was performed to assess whether H2O2 acts as a vasodilator in the rat mesenteric artery and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanisms. H2O2(More)
Orcokinins are neuropeptides that have been identified in diverse arthropods. In some species, an orcokinin gene encodes two isoforms of mature orcokinin peptide through alternative mRNA splicing. The existence of two orcokinin isoforms was predicted in Drosophila melanogaster as well, but the expression pattern of both isoforms has not been characterized.(More)