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Animals from flies to humans are able to distinguish subtle gradations in temperature and show strong temperature preferences. Animals move to environments of optimal temperature and some manipulate the temperature of their surroundings, as humans do using clothing and shelter. Despite the ubiquitous influence of environmental temperature on animal(More)
Daily sleep cycles in humans are driven by a complex circuit within which GABAergic sleep-promoting neurons oppose arousal. Drosophila sleep has recently been shown to be controlled by GABA, which acts on unknown cells expressing the Rdl GABAA receptor. We identify here the relevant Rdl-containing cells as PDF-expressing small and large ventral lateral(More)
Chemical nociception, the detection of tissue-damaging chemicals, is important for animal survival and causes human pain and inflammation, but its evolutionary origins are largely unknown. Reactive electrophiles are a class of noxious compounds humans find pungent and irritating, such as allyl isothiocyanate (in wasabi) and acrolein (in cigarette smoke).(More)
Discriminating among sensory stimuli is critical for animal survival. This discrimination is particularly essential when evaluating whether a stimulus is noxious or innocuous. From insects to humans, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are key transducers of thermal, chemical and other sensory cues. Many TRPs are multimodal receptors that respond to(More)
A mechanistic understanding of animal navigation requires quantitative assessment of the sensorimotor strategies used during navigation and quantitative assessment of how these strategies are regulated by cellular sensors. Here, we examine thermotactic behavior of the Drosophila melanogaster larva using a tracking microscope to study individual larval(More)
Citronellal, a well-known plant-derived mosquito repellent, was previously reported to repel Drosophila melanogaster via olfactory pathways involving but not directly activating Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). Here, we show that citronellal is a direct agonist for Drosophila and human TRPA1s (dTRPA1 and hTRPA1) as well as Anopheles gambiae(More)
The ability to sense and respond to subtle variations in environmental temperature is critical for animal survival. Animals avoid temperatures that are too cold or too warm and seek out temperatures favorable for their survival. At the molecular level, members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels contribute to thermosensory(More)
The Na/Ca-K exchanger (NCKX) utilizes the inward sodium gradient and outward potassium gradient for Ca(2+) extrusion; two distinct NCKX isoforms are expressed in the outer segments of retinal rod (NCKX1) and cone (NCKX2) photoreceptors, respectively, where NCKX extrudes Ca(2+) that enters photoreceptors via the cGMP-gated channels. We carried out the first(More)
The Na(+)/Ca(2+)-K(+) exchanger (NCKX) extrudes Ca(2+) from cells utilizing both the inward Na(+) gradient and the outward K(+) gradient. NCKX is thought to operate by a consecutive mechanism in which a cation binding pocket accommodates both Ca(2+) and K(+) and alternates between inward and outward facing conformations. Here we developed a simple(More)
Proper control of intracellular free Ca(2+) is thought to involve subsets of proteins that co-localize to mediate coordinated Ca(2+) entry and Ca(2+) extrusion. The outer segments of vertebrate rod and cone photoreceptors present one example: Ca(2+) influx is exclusively mediated via cGMP-gated channels (CNG), whereas the Na(+)/Ca(2+)-K(+) exchanger (NCKX)(More)