Kyaw Zin Thein

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Pernicious anemia (PA), the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency anemia worldwide, is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiologies involving complex environmental and immunological factors. Although it was first reported by Addison in 1849 with subsequent advances in understanding of pathogenesis and molecular biology, diagnosis of pernicious(More)
BACKGROUND Ipilimumab (a monoclonal antibody against CTLA-4) and nivolumab (a humanized antibody against PD-1) target these immune checkpoint pathways and are used for treatment of melanoma and an increasing number of other cancers. However, they may cause immune-related adverse effects (IRAEs). Although many endocrinopathies are known to be IRAEs, primary(More)
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