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Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light to drive circadian clock resetting and pupillary constriction. We now report that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. A(More)
Melanopsin has been proposed to be the photopigment of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs); these photoreceptors of the mammalian eye drive circadian and pupillary adjustments through direct projections to the brain. Their action spectrum (lambda(max) approximately 480 nm) implicates an opsin and melanopsin is the only opsin(More)
The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) provide a conduit through which rods and cones can access brain circuits mediating circadian entrainment, pupillary constriction and other non-image-forming visual functions. We characterized synaptic inputs to ipRGCs in rats using whole-cell and multielectrode array recording techniques. In(More)
Retinal dopaminergic amacrine neurons (DA neurons) play a central role in reconfiguring retinal function according to prevailing illumination conditions, yet the mechanisms by which light regulates their activity are poorly understood. We investigated the means by which sustained light responses are evoked in DA neurons. Sustained light responses were(More)
A key principle of retinal organization is that distinct ON and OFF channels are relayed by separate populations of bipolar cells to different sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). ON bipolar cell axons have been thought to synapse exclusively in the inner IPL (the ON sublamina) onto dendrites of ON-type amacrine and ganglion cells. However, M1(More)
A rare type of mammalian retinal ganglion cell (RGC) expresses the photopigment melanopsin and is a photoreceptor. These intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) drive circadian-clock resetting, pupillary constriction, and other non-image-forming photic responses. Both the light responses of ipRGCs and the behaviors they drive are remarkably sustained,(More)
Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are photoreceptors of the mammalian eye that drive pupillary responses, synchronization of circadian rhythms, and other reflexive responses to daylight. Melanopsin is the ipRGC photopigment, but the signaling cascade through which this invertebrate-like opsin triggers the photocurrent in these(More)
Whereas the zebrafish retina has long been an important model system for developmental and genetic studies, little is known about the responses of the inner retinal neurons. Here we report single-unit ganglion cell recordings from 5- to 6-day-old zebrafish larvae. In wild-type larvae we identify at least five subtypes of ganglion cell responses to(More)
Glutamate receptors on giant danio retinal on bipolar cells were studied with whole cell patch clamping using a slice preparation. Cone-driven on bipolars (Cbs) and mixed-input on bipolars (Mbs) were identified morphologically. Most Cbs responded to the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) substrate d-aspartate but not to the group III metabotropic(More)
  • Kwoon Y Wong
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official…
  • 2012
A recently discovered type of mammalian retinal ganglion cell encodes environmental light intensity and mediates non-image-forming visual behaviors, such as the pupillary reflex and circadian photoentrainment. These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) generate endogenous, melanopsin-based photoresponses as well as extrinsic,(More)