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Dorsal root ganglion neurons express a wide repertoire of sodium channels with different properties. Here, we report the cloning from rat, dorsal root ganglia (DRG), cellular expression, and functional analysis of a novel tetrodotoxin-sensitive peripheral sodium channel (PN), PN1. PN1 mRNA is expressed in many different tissues. Within the rat DRG, both the(More)
Using the photopigment melanopsin, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light to drive circadian clock resetting and pupillary constriction. We now report that ipRGCs are more abundant and diverse than previously appreciated, project more widely within the brain, and can support spatial visual perception. A(More)
Melanopsin has been proposed to be the photopigment of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs); these photoreceptors of the mammalian eye drive circadian and pupillary adjustments through direct projections to the brain. Their action spectrum (lambda(max) approximately 480 nm) implicates an opsin and melanopsin is the only opsin(More)
The intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) provide a conduit through which rods and cones can access brain circuits mediating circadian entrainment, pupillary constriction and other non-image-forming visual functions. We characterized synaptic inputs to ipRGCs in rats using whole-cell and multielectrode array recording techniques. In(More)
A rare type of mammalian retinal ganglion cell (RGC) expresses the photopigment melanopsin and is a photoreceptor. These intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) drive circadian-clock resetting, pupillary constriction, and other non-image-forming photic responses. Both the light responses of ipRGCs and the behaviors they drive are remarkably sustained,(More)
Glutamate receptors on giant danio retinal on bipolar cells were studied with whole cell patch clamping using a slice preparation. Cone-driven on bipolars (Cbs) and mixed-input on bipolars (Mbs) were identified morphologically. Most Cbs responded to the excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) substrate d-aspartate but not to the group III metabotropic(More)
The retina consists of ordered arrays of individual types of neurons for processing vision. Here, we show that such order is necessary for intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) to function as irradiance detectors. We found that during development, ipRGCs undergo proximity-dependent Bax-mediated apoptosis. Bax mutant mice exhibit(More)
Retinal dopaminergic amacrine neurons (DA neurons) play a central role in reconfiguring retinal function according to prevailing illumination conditions, yet the mechanisms by which light regulates their activity are poorly understood. We investigated the means by which sustained light responses are evoked in DA neurons. Sustained light responses were(More)
A key principle of retinal organization is that distinct ON and OFF channels are relayed by separate populations of bipolar cells to different sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer (IPL). ON bipolar cell axons have been thought to synapse exclusively in the inner IPL (the ON sublamina) onto dendrites of ON-type amacrine and ganglion cells. However, M1(More)
A behavioral assay based on the optokinetic reflex was used to screen chemically mutagenized zebrafish larvae for deficits in visual function. A homozygous recessive mutation, lazy eyes (lze), was isolated based on the observation that 5-day postfertilization (dpf) mutants displayed weaker and less frequent eye movements than wild-type fish in response to(More)