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Mutations at the mouse short ear (se) locus alter the formation and repair of skeletal structures and the development of several soft tissues. Most of the developmental effects of the gene have been studied using a spontaneous mutation reported over 70 years ago. Here we show that this mutation consists of a nonsense mutation in a secreted signaling(More)
BACKGROUND Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis has been reported in 45 countries, including countries with limited resources and a high burden of tuberculosis. We describe the management of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and treatment outcomes among patients who were referred for individualized outpatient therapy in Peru. METHODS A total of(More)
Over 40 years of mutagenesis experiments using the mouse specific-locus test have produced a large number of induced germline mutations at seven loci, among them the short ear locus. We have previously shown that the short ear locus encodes bone morphogenetic protein 5 (BMP5), a member of a large family of secreted signaling molecules that play key roles in(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, toxic, expensive, and has generally poor outcomes. We undertook an individual patient data meta-analysis to assess the impact on outcomes of the type, number, and duration of drugs used to treat MDR-TB. METHODS AND FINDINGS Three recent systematic reviews were used to identify(More)
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presents an increasing threat to global tuberculosis control. Many crucial management issues in MDR-TB treatment remain unanswered. We reviewed the existing scientific research on MDR-TB treatment, which consists entirely of retrospective cohort studies. Although direct comparisons of these studies are impossible,(More)
The risk of acquiring additional drug resistance in strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) during failure of empiric standardized retreatment regimens is poorly defined. We sought to estimate this risk by comparing drug susceptibility profiles and RFLP patterns of paired MDR-TB isolates collected from 27 patients before and after retreatment(More)
SETTING National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital, Masan, South Korea, a 430-bed tertiary referral hospital specializing in tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the treatment outcomes of standardized, empiric regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). DESIGN A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 142 patients with MDR-TB who had(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in high HIV-prevalence settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We did a retrospective analysis of early outcomes of the first cohort of patients registered in the Lesotho national MDR-TB program between July 21, 2007 and April 21, 2008.(More)
BACKGROUND Individualized treatment for multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis depends upon reliable and valid drug susceptibility testing (DST) for pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and second-line tuberculosis drugs. However, the reliability of these tests is uncertain, due to unresolved methodological issues. We(More)
BACKGROUND In Tomsk Oblast, Russian Federation, during the period of 1996-2000, most previously untreated patients with tuberculosis received standardized short-course chemotherapy, irrespective of drug-susceptibility testing results. A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effect of initial drug resistance on treatment outcome and acquired drug(More)