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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the regulation of NF-kappaB activation, which plays an important role in inflammation and cell survival. However, the molecular mechanisms of ROS in NF-kappaB activation remain poorly defined. We found that the non-provitamin A carotenoid, lutein, decreased intracellular H(2)O(2) accumulation by(More)
The intermediate filament protein, nestin, is a widely employed marker of multipotent neural stem cells (NSCs). Recent in vitro studies have implicated nestin in a number of cellular processes, but there is no data yet on its in vivo function. Here, we report the construction and functional characterization of Nestin knockout mice. We found that these mice(More)
Astaxanthin, a carotenoid without vitamin A activity, has shown anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; however, its molecular action and mechanism have not been elucidated. We examined in vitro and in vivo regulatory function of astaxanthin on production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) as well as expression of inducible NO synthase(More)
TGF-beta induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic factor, at the transcriptional and protein levels in mouse macrophages. VEGF secretion in response to TGF-beta1 is enhanced by hypoxia and by overexpression of Smad3/4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha/beta (HIF-1alpha/beta). To examine the transcriptional regulation of VEGF(More)
Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in vascular functions. We here examined the molecular mechanism by which CO regulates HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1)-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is an important angiogenic factor. We found that astrocytes stimulated with CORM-2 (CO-releasing(More)
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional protein that can function as a transglutaminase, G protein, kinase, protein disulfide isomerase, and as an adaptor protein. These multiple biochemical activities of TG2 account for, at least in part, its involvement in a wide variety of cellular processes encompassing differentiation, cell death, inflammation,(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) functions not only as an important signaling molecule in the brain by producing cGMP, but also regulates neuronal cell apoptosis. The mechanism by which NO regulates apoptosis is unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that NO, produced either from the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) or by transfection of neuronal NO(More)
Angiogenesis is important for promoting cardiovascular disease, wound healing, and tissue regeneration. We investigated the effects of Korean red ginseng water extract (KRGE) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. KRGE increased in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, as well as(More)
Farnesylation of p21(ras) is an important step in the intracellular signaling pathway of growth factors, hormones, and immune stimulants. We synthesized a potent and selective farnesyltransferase inhibitor (LB42708) with IC(50) values of 0.8 nM in vitro and 8 nM in cultured cells against p21(ras) farnesylation and examined the effects of this inhibitor in(More)
Fractalkine (FKN) has been implicated in modulation of angiogenesis and vascular inflammation, but the underlying mechanism has not been elucidated. We have investigated the molecular mechanism by which FKN regulates angiogenesis. We found that recombinant FKN increases in vitro proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein(More)