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When lingual orthodontics was first introduced about twenty years ago some called it the 'ultimate aesthetic appliance'. Patients and practitioners embraced this new treatment alternative with high expectations. Reports of disappointing results and high costs dampened much of the initial excitement and enthusiasm gradually waned. By the late 1980s, the(More)
This paper aims to shed some light on how the concept of cloud manufacturing has been applied to the semiconductor manufacturing operations. It starts with describing the challenges to the semiconductor manufacturing due to evolving of outsourcing business model in global context, then discusses the different forms of cloud manufacturing and proposes the(More)
This document describes a mapping of the Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) into a sockets API. The benefits of this mapping include compatibility for TCP applications, access to new SCTP features, and a consolidated error and event notification scheme. Status of This Memo This document is not an Internet Standards Track specification; it is(More)
Expert systems are increasingly being used to provide comprehensive interpretative services for diagnosis and treatment planning. Some of these systems are constrained by the complexities of rule-based strategies and a need for knowledge engineers throughout the maintenance phase. A new approach to knowledge acquisition known as Ripple-Down-Rules was used(More)
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