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Antibodies capable of neutralizing divergent influenza A viruses could form the basis of a universal vaccine. Here, from subjects enrolled in an H5N1 DNA/MIV-prime-boost influenza vaccine trial, we sorted hemagglutinin cross-reactive memory B cells and identified three antibody classes, each capable of neutralizing diverse subtypes of group 1 and group 2(More)
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) synthesizes several putative viral envelope proteins, including the spike (S), membrane (M), and small envelope (E) glycoproteins. Although these proteins likely are essential for viral replication, their specific roles in SARS-CoV entry have not been defined. In this report, we show that the(More)
Although the B clade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelopes (Env) includes five highly variable regions, each of these domains contains a subset of sequences that remain conserved. The V3 loop has been much studied for its ability to elicit neutralizing antibodies, which are often restricted to a limited number of closely related strains,(More)
The tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 for chemokine receptors plays an important role in the transmission of AIDS. Although CXCR4-tropic virus is more cytopathic for T cells, CCR5-tropic strains are transmitted more frequently in humans for reasons that are not understood. Phenotypically immature myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) are(More)
Ebola virus (EBOV) cellular attachment and entry is initiated by the envelope glycoprotein (GP) on the virion surface. Entry of this virus is pH dependent and associated with the cleavage of GP by proteases, including cathepsin L (CatL) and/or CatB, in the endosome or cell membrane. Here, we characterize the product of CatL cleavage of Zaire EBOV GP(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) capture and internalize human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 through C-type lectins, including DC-SIGN. These cells mediate efficient infection of T cells by concentrating the delivery of virus through the infectious synapse, a process dependent on the cytoplasmic domain of DC-SIGN. Here, we identify a cellular protein that binds(More)
HIV-1 assembly depends on its structural protein, Gag, which after synthesis on ribosomes, traffics to the late endosome/plasma membrane, associates with HIV Env glycoprotein, and forms infectious virions. While Env and Gag migrate to lipid microdomains, their stoichiometry and specificity of interaction are unknown. Pseudotyped viral particles can be made(More)
Molecular characterization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus has revealed genetic diversity among isolates. The spike (S) glycoprotein, the major target for vaccine and immune therapy, shows up to 17 substitutions in its 1,255-aa sequence; however, the biologic significance of these changes is unknown. Here, the functional effects of S(More)
DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells that are positioned throughout the peripheral immune system (1–3). DCs capture antigen and present processed antigenic peptides through MHC molecules (for review see references 4–7). Immature DCs migrate from the blood into tissues where they detect foreign antigens. Upon activation and maturation, these cells(More)
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) as a cause of severe respiratory disease highlights the need for effective approaches to CoV vaccine development. Efforts focused solely on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral Spike (S) glycoprotein may not optimize neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses. Here we show that(More)