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Free traffic flow on a complex network is key to its normal and efficient functioning. Recent works indicate that many realistic networks possess connecting topologies with a scale-free feature: the probability distribution of the number of links at nodes, or the degree distribution, contains a power-law component. A natural question is then how the… (More)

The possibility that a complex network can be brought down by attack on a single or a very few nodes through the process of cascading failures is of significant concern. Here we investigate a recent model for cascading failures in complex networks and uncover a phase-transition phenomenon in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For… (More)

Networks with a community (or modular) structure underlie many social and biological phenomena. In such a network individuals tend to form sparsely linked local communities, each having dense internal connections. We investigate the dynamics of information propagation on modular networks by using a three-state epidemic model with a unit spreading rate… (More)

Growth and preferential attachments have been coined as the two fundamental mechanisms responsible for the scale-free feature in complex networks, as characterized by an algebraic degree distribution. There are situations, particularly in biological networks, where growth is absent or not important, yet some of these networks still exhibit the scale-free… (More)

To account for possible distinct functional roles played by different nodes and links in complex networks, we introduce and analyze a class of weighted scale-free networks. The weight of a node is assigned as a random number, based on which the weights of links are defined. We utilize the concept of betweenness to characterize the weighted networks and… (More)

Flows of physical quantities in large complex networks, natural or man made, rely in general on some scalar gradients existing in the networks. We investigate, analytically and numerically, under what conditions jamming in gradient flows can occur in random and scale-free networks. We find that the degree of jamming typically increases with the average… (More)

Networks with a community (or modular) structure arise in social and biological sciences. In such a network individuals tend to form local communities, each having dense internal connections. The linkage among the communities is, however, much more sparse. The dynamics on modular networks, for instance synchronization, may be of great social or biological… (More)

Recent research has revealed that complex networks with a smaller average distance and more homogeneous degree distribution are more synchronizable. We find, however, that synchronization in complex, clustered networks tends to obey a different set of rules. In particular, the synchronizability of such a network is determined by the interplay between… (More)

Scale-free networks can be disintegrated by attack on a single or a very few nodes through the process of cascading failures. By utilizing a prototype cascading model, we previously determined the critical value of the capacity parameter below which the network can become disintegrated due to attack on a single node. A fundamental question in network… (More)

The possibility that a complex network can be brought down by attack on a single or very few nodes through the process of cascading failures is of significant concern. In this paper, we investigate cascading failures in complex networks and uncover a phase-transition phenomenon in terms of the key parameter characterizing the node capacity. For parameter… (More)