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The axon initial segment (AIS) serves as the site of action potential initiation in most neurons, but difficulties in isolating the effects of voltage-gated ion channels in the AIS from those of the soma and dendrites have hampered understanding how AIS properties influence neural coding. Here we have combined confocal microscopy, patch-clamp recordings and(More)
Presynaptic axonal varicosities, like postsynaptic spines, are dynamically added and eliminated even in mature neuronal circuitry. To study the role of this axonal structural plasticity in behavioral learning, we performed two-photon in vivo imaging of cerebellar parallel fibers (PFs) in adult mice. PFs make excitatory synapses on Purkinje cells (PCs) in(More)
UNLABELLED During brain development, dynamic changes in neuronal membranes perform critical roles in neuronal morphogenesis and migration to create functional neural circuits. Among the proteins that induce membrane dynamics, cell adhesion molecules are important in neuronal membrane plasticity. Here, we report that V-set and transmembrane domain-containing(More)
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