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Inverted nipple, which is defined as a nipple located on a plane lower than the areola, presents both functional and cosmetic problems. It is a source of repeated irritation and inflammation, and interferes with nursing. In addition, its abnormal appearance may cause psychological distress. Inverted nipples are congenital or acquired, and are classified as(More)
Earlobe keloid can form after cosmetic ear piercing, trauma, or burns, and it poses several difficulties in treatment and distinctive cosmetic implications. Treatment methods for earlobe keloids include both surgical and nonsurgical methods. After excision of the earlobe keloid, healing by secondary intention, primary suture, skin graft, or local flap has(More)
In a review of 42 cases of degenerative arthritis of the cervical spine and 22 cases of cervical spine trauma with an observed anterior slippage (spondylolisthesis) or posterior slippage (retrolisthesis) of the vertebral bodies of 2 mm or more, characteristic features were observed which allowed distinction between degenerative and traumatic slippage of the(More)
Although deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps are mainly used for breast reconstruction as free flaps, they are also useful as pedicled island flaps. However, DIEP flaps have seldom been used for reconstructions in the lateral hip region. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, no report has been issued on the use of this flap for buttock(More)
A diverse variety of methods for reconstructing eyebrow defects has been described previously, and each procedure has inherent advantages and disadvantages. The authors present a case of reconstruction of a partial eyebrow defect using two eyebrow island flaps, which are modifications of the subcutaneous pedicle flap.
Free flaps are usually required rather than local flaps for large plantar defects, due to a lack of locally available tissue. The medial sural artery perforator free flap, recently introduced clinically by several authors, is a noticeable option for soft tissue coverage, but it has still not been widely used for the reconstruction of various large plantar(More)
BACKGROUND Although the reconstruction of palmar defects of the thumb with exposed vital structures is difficult because of a lack of locally available tissue, several local flaps are available for the reconstruction of these defects. The majority of these flaps are raised from the dorsal or dorsolateral aspect of the thumb and index finger or from the(More)
BACKGROUND Many people have an interest in the correction of facial scars or deformities caused by trauma. The increasing ability to correct such flaws has been one of the reasons for the increase in the popularity of facial plastic surgery. In addition to its roles in communication, breathing, eating, olfaction and vision, the appearance of the face also(More)
Reduction malarplasty through the intraoral or the combined approach using intraoral and preauricular incisions is widely performed as an aesthetic surgical procedure in northeast Asia. The authors recently examined a patient who underwent this type of surgery and presented with discoloration of both upper canine teeth that was diagnosed as pulp necrosis.(More)