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Neonates suffer high morbidity and mortality in infection, presumably because of the lack of a fully developed adaptive and innate immune system. Evidence of poor innate responses in neonates has been shown by using a model that sensitizes the host to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation with d-galactosamine (d-GalN). However, we show that(More)
Neuraminidase is a proven target in anti-viral drug development. It also appears to be important for infection by certain pathogenic bacteria and has been implicated in biofilm formation. Based on activity-guided fractionation, the acetone extract of Amorpha fruticosa roots gave four flavanones 1-4 and three rotenoids 5-7 which were identified as amoradicin(More)
Based on a previous finding that endothelial cell-specific molecule-1 (ESM-1) is a potential serum marker for colorectal cancer (CRC), the aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological significance of ESM-1 expression in CRC, and to explore the correlation between ESM-1 and HIF-1α in the tumorigenesis of(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize conserved microbial structures called pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Signaling from TLRs leads to upregulation of co-stimulatory molecules for better priming of T cells and secretion of inflammatory cytokines by innate immune cells. Lymphocyte-deficient hosts often die of acute infection, presumably owing to(More)
The efficacy of cisplatin in cancer chemotherapy is limited by the development of resistance. To elucidate the molecular basis of resistance to cisplatin, we compared cisplatin-induced apoptotic responses of the parental human bladder cancer cell line, T24 and its resistant subclone, T24R2. In T24 cells, cisplatin induce apoptosis and the activation of(More)
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I is a major host defense mechanism against viral infections such as type 16 and type 18 of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Here, we found that the E6 oncogene from HPV16, but not HPV18, suppressed MHC I expression. Ectopic expression of HPV16E6 in HeLa cells, which are infected with HPV18, suppressed MHC I(More)
We searched for genes with expressions specific to human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) using differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and found that N-myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a member of a new family of differentiation-related genes, was expressed in DCs. While DCs derived from CD34(+) progenitor cells(More)
Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) expression correlates with tumor growth, metastasis, and chemoresistance in gastric cancer. Here, we show that RhoGDI2 functions in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is responsible for invasiveness during tumor progression. This tumorigenic activity is associated with repression of E-cadherin by(More)
Recent studies have shown that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a pivotal role in the modulation of immune response against tumor and virus infection. Here we demonstrate the pro-apoptotic effect of L-kynurenine, a tryptophan catabolite of IDO, on human NK cell line, NK92 MI. Treatment with L-kynurenine dose-dependently induced growth inhibition and(More)
DNA gyrase, which catalyzes topological transformation of DNA, plays an essential role in replication and transcription in prokaryotes. Virus-induced gene silencing of NbGyrA or NbGyrB, which putatively encode DNA gyrase subunits A and B, respectively, resulted in leaf yellowing phenotypes in Nicotiana benthamiana. NbGyrA and NbGyrB complemented the gyrA(More)