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This study examines the anatomic relationships and variability of the facial nerve trunk and its branches, with emphasis on the intraparotid connections between the divisions. Microdissections were performed on 30 Korean half-heads, and the facial nerve trunks and branches were exposed. The average depth of the stylomastoid foramen from the skin surface was(More)
The dramatic changes in facial expression are most remarkable in the perioral region. Among the perioral musculatures, the zygomaticus major (ZMj) muscle plays an important role in the facial expression. The aim of this study was to determine the anatomic patterns of the bifid ZMj through a topographic examination at the perioral region. Through 70(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to clarify the arrangement of the zygomaticus major muscle by means of topographic examination, and to evaluate the anatomical variations in the insertion of the zygomaticus major at the perioral region. METHODS After a detailed dissection in the modiolar region, the insertion area of the zygomaticus major was observed(More)
Little is currently known about the variations in the muscular band around the orbicularis oculi muscle (OOc) region, and so the aim of the current study was to describe in anatomic terms the morphologic patterns of the lateral muscular bands of the OOc. Sixty-one hemifaces from embalmed Korean adult cadavers (34 males, 27 females; age range, 45-85 years;(More)
The aim of this study was to clarify the morphology and topography of the dilator naris vestibularis, dilator naris anterior, and alar part of the nasalis. Anatomical variations in the topographic relationships are also described to provide critical data for understanding nasal muscular functions. Anatomical and histological examinations were performed on(More)
Recent theories about migraine pathogenesis have emphatized the role of the trigeminal system in the pathogenesis of migraine attacks. The local vasodilatation of intracranial extracerebral blood vessels and the consequent stimulation of surrounding trigeminal sensory nerve pain pathways are proposed to be the key mechanisms underlying the generation of(More)
The aim of this study was to examine in detail the anatomic variations in the orbicularis oculi muscle (OOc) and relationship of the zygomaticus minor muscle (ZMi) with the OOc, thereby providing an anatomic basis for explaining facial animation and attachment to the periorbital muscle. Sixty-one hemifaces from embalmed Korean adult cadavers (34 males, 27(More)
The aim of this study was to clarify the distribution pattern and innervation territory of the mental nerve (MN) in the skin and mucosa by topographic examination by Sihler's staining, thereby providing reference anatomical information for surgical procedures and to enable prediction of regions of sensory disturbance following nerve damage. Ten human(More)
Despite the importance of anatomic variations in the muscular bands around the orbicularis oculi muscle (OOc), little is known about them. The morphology and variations therein of the medial muscular band of the OOc were thus examined in the current study. Sixty-one hemifaces of Korean cadavers were dissected to enable examination of the anatomic(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the area of insertion of the facial portion of the platysma being broad and highly variable, the details of its pattern of extension and morphology are not well described in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to clarify the extension patterns of the platysma on the middle and lower face by topographic examination and(More)