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In patients with acute leukemia, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) correlates with risk of relapse. However, the level of MRD that is most likely to preclude cure by HCT is unclear, and the benefit of further chemotherapy to reduce MRD before HCT is unknown. In 122 children with(More)
BACKGROUND Novel therapies are needed for children with relapsed or refractory leukemia. We therefore tested the safety and feasibility of haploidentical natural killer cell therapy in this patient population. PROCEDURE Twenty-nine children who had relapsed or refractory leukemia were treated with chemotherapy followed by the infusion of haploidentical NK(More)
Gross motor development, and the effect of age, sex and vestibular function on it, was examined in 39 24- to 83-mo.-old children with sensorineural hearing impairment. Repeated testing was completed on 18 children. Delayed gross motor development was evident regardless of age, but only children less than 5 years of age had developmental balance deficits on(More)
Inhibitory NK cell receptors are recognized as important determinants of NK cell activity in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The role of activating receptors and their acquisition after HCT is less certain. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated both inhibitory and activating receptors in 59 patients receiving unrelated donor HCT. NK cell numbers(More)
As survivors of pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) increase in number, it is increasingly important to evaluate their well-being. We conducted this prospective cohort study to evaluate the cumulative incidence and risk factors for late sequelae of HSCT. Comprehensive surveillance tests were performed annually on every(More)
Iron overload has not been studied extensively and prospectively in pediatric survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); therefore, we conducted a prospective long-term study of 133 survivors of childhood leukemia to assess the incidence of and risk factors for iron overload and to investigate its association with organ(More)
We evaluated 190 children with very high-risk leukemia, who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in 2 sequential treatment eras, to determine whether those treated with contemporary protocols had a high risk of relapse or toxic death, and whether non-HLA-identical transplantations yielded poor outcomes. For the recent cohorts, the 5-year(More)
PURPOSE Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that regulate natural-killer cells are highly polymorphic. Some KIR2DL1 alleles encode receptors that have stronger signaling function than others. We tested the hypothesis that the clinical outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) could be affected by donor KIR2DL1(More)
NK cells play an important role in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and in cross talk with dendritic cells (DCs) to induce primary T cell response against infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that blood DCs should augment NK cell function and reduce the risk of leukemia relapse after HCT. To test this hypothesis, we conducted laboratory and(More)
Donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) is commonly used to treat leukemia relapse following stem cell transplantation. In florid relapse, however, the efficacy of DLI is limited with substantial risk of severe graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Here, we develop a novel risk-adapted strategy characterized by pre-emptive DLI initiated at the time of mixed chimerism,(More)