Kwabena Boahen

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The theory of "parallel pathways" predicts that, except for a sign reversal, ON and OFF ganglion cells are driven by a similar presynaptic circuit. To test this hypothesis, we measured synaptic inputs to ON and OFF cells as reflected in the subthreshold membrane potential. We made intracellular recordings from brisk-transient (Y) cells in the in vitro(More)
The new generation of silicon retinae has two deening characteristics. First, these synthetic reti-nae are morphologically equivalent to their biological counterparts|at an appropriate level of abstraction. Second, they accomplish all four major operations performed by biological retinae using neurobiological principles: (1) continuous sensing for(More)
Retinal ganglion cells adapt their responses to the amplitude of fluctuations around the mean light level, or the "contrast." But, in mammalian retina, it is not known whether adaptation arises exclusively at the level of synaptic inputs or whether there is also adaptation in the process of ganglion cell spike generation. Here, we made intracellular(More)
Hardware implementations of spiking neurons can be extremely useful for a large variety of applications, ranging from high-speed modeling of large-scale neural systems to real-time behaving systems, to bidirectional brain-machine interfaces. The specific circuit solutions used to implement silicon neurons depend on the application requirements. In this(More)
An overview of the current-mode approach for designing analog VLSI neural systems in subthreshold CMOS technology is presented. Emphasis is given to design techniques at the device level using the current-controlled current conveyor and the translinear principle. Circuits for associative memory and silicon retina systems are used as examples. The design(More)
A retinal ganglion cell receptive field is made up of an excitatory center and an inhibitory surround. The surround has two components: one driven by horizontal cells at the first synaptic layer and one driven by amacrine cells at the second synaptic layer. Here we characterized how amacrine cells inhibit the center response of on- and off-center Y-type(More)