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Tutoring systems are described as having two loops. The outer loop executes once for each task, where a task usually consists of solving a complex, multi-step problem. The inner loop executes once for each step taken by the student in the solution of a task. The inner loop can give feedback and hints on each step. The inner loop can also assess the(More)
Cognitive skill acquisition is acquiring the ability to solve problems in intellectual tasks, where success is determined more by subjects' knowledge than by their physical prowess. This review considers research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single principle or rule, the initial(More)
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When exposed to a regular stimulus field, for instance, that generated by an artificial grammar, subjects unintentionally learn to respond efficiently to the underlying structure (Miller, 1958; Reber 1967). We explored the hypothesis that the learning process is chunking and that grammatical knowledge is implicitly encoded in a hierarchical network of(More)
Although there are many machine-learning programs that can acquire new problem solving strategies. it is not known exactly how their processes will manifest themselves in human behavior, if at all. In order to find out, o line-by-line protocol analysis was conducted of CI subject discovering problem-solving strategies. A model was developed that coul d expl(More)
The Andes system is a mature intelligent tutoring system that has helped hundreds of students improve their learning of university physics. It replaces pencil and paper problem solving homework. Students continue to attend the same lectures, labs and recitations. Five years of experimentation at the United States Naval Academy indicates that it(More)
While human tutors typically interact with students using spoken dialogue, most computer dialogue tutors are text-based. We have conducted two experiments comparing typed and spoken tutoring dialogues, one in a human-human scenario, and another in a human-computer scenario. In both experiments, we compared spoken versus typed tutoring for learning gains and(More)
When a tutoring system aims to provide students with interactive help, it needs to know what knowledge the student has and what goals the student is currently trying to achieve. That is, it must do both assessment and plan recognition. These modeling tasks involve a high level of uncertainty when students are allowed to follow various lines of reasoning and(More)