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Tutoring systems are described as having two loops. The outer loop executes once for each task, where a task usually consists of solving a complex, multi-step problem. The inner loop executes once for each step taken by the student in the solution of a task. The inner loop can give feedback and hints on each step. The inner loop can also assess the(More)
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The Andes system is a mature intelligent tutoring system that has helped hundreds of students improve their learning of university physics. It replaces pencil and paper problem solving homework. Students continue to attend the same lectures, labs and recitations. Five years of experimentation at the United States Naval Academy indicates that it(More)
Cognitive skill acquisition is acquiring the ability to solve problems in intellectual tasks, where success is determined more by subjects' knowledge than by their physical prowess. This review considers research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single principle or rule, the initial(More)
When a tutoring system aims to provide students with interactive help, it needs to know what knowledge the student has and what goals the student is currently trying to achieve. That is, it must do both assessment and plan recognition. These modeling tasks involve a high level of uncertainty when students are allowed to follow various lines of reasoning and(More)
When exposed to a regular stimulus field, for instance, that generated by an artificial grammar, subjects unintentionally learn to respond efficiently to the underlying structure (Miller, 1958; Reber 1967). We explored the hypothesis that the learning process is chunking and that grammatical knowledge is implicitly encoded in a hierarchical network of(More)
It is often assumed that engaging in a one-on-one dialogue with a tutor is more effective than listening to a lecture or reading a text. Although earlier experiments have not always supported this hypothesis, this may be due in part to allowing the tutors to cover different content than the noninteractive instruction. In 7 experiments, we tested the(More)
Many of the Intelligent Tutoring Systems that have been developed during the last 20 years have proven to be quite successful, particularly in the domains of mathematics, science, and technology. They produce significant learning gains beyond classroom environments. They are capable of engaging most students’ attention and interest for hours. We have been(More)
While human tutors typically interact with students using spoken dialogue, most computer dialogue tutors are text-based. We have conducted two experiments comparing typed and spoken tutoring dialogues, one in a human-human scenario, and another in a human-computer scenario. In both experiments, we compared spoken versus typed tutoring for learning gains and(More)
The Why2-Atlas system teaches qualitative physics by having students write paragraph-long explanations of simple mechanical phenomena. The tutor uses deep syntactic analysis and abductive theorem proving to convert the student’s essay to a proof. The proof formalizes not only what was said, but the likely beliefs behind what was said. This allows the tutor(More)