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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, highly heritable complex disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and defects in glucose homeostasis. Increased luteinizing hormone relative to follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, insulin resistance and developmental exposure to androgens are hypothesized to play a(More)
BACKGROUND A logistic regression model (M4) was developed in the UK to predict the outcome for women with a pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) based on the initial two human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) values, 48 h apart. The purpose of this paper was to assess the utility of this model to predict the outcome for a woman (PUL) in a US population. (More)
BACKGROUND The term 'pregnancy of unknown location' (PUL) refers to cases where a pregnancy test is positive but the pregnancy cannot be visualized by transvaginal sonography (TVS). Various strategies integrating TVS and serum hCG measures are used to follow-up until the location and/or viability of the pregnancy becomes clear; however, the optimal strategy(More)
Eighty-one patients with long-term tracheostomy tubes (mean duration, 4.9 months) were examined via fiberoptic bronchoscopy prior to decannulation. Obstructive airway lesions were observed in 54 patients (67 percent). All tracheal lesions were anatomically located proximal to the stoma. No cuff lesions were observed. The two most commonly observed lesions(More)
BACKGROUND Vaginal anatomy has been poorly studied. This study aimed to measure baseline dimensions of the undistended vagina of women of reproductive age. METHODS We combined baseline information collected from five clinical trials using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify distribution of a vaginal gel. Seventy-seven MRI scans were performed on(More)
O ver the past two to three decades, pelvic ultrasonography and measurement of the serum concentration of human chorionic gonado-tropin (hCG) (Table 1) have become mainstays in the diagnosis and management of early-pregnancy problems. These tests, which allow earlier detection of pregnancy and more accurate diagnosis of its complications than were(More)
BACKGROUND In the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Trial (WHI RCT), estrogen-only treatment compared with combined estrogen-progestin treatment resulted in less coronary artery disease, no increase in breast cancer and no reduction in colorectal cancer. Since we previously reasonably replicated the combined estrogen-progestin WHI RCT using(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines containing types 16 and 18 are likely to be effective in preventing cervical cancer associated with these HPV types. No information currently exists in Botswana concerning the HPV types causing precancerous or cancerous lesions. Our goal was to determine the prevalence of HPV types associated with precancerous cervical(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze serial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in women presenting to the emergency department who were ultimately confirmed to have ectopic pregnancies. METHODS Human chorionic gonadotropin levels were obtained over time until definitive diagnosis. To be included, women had to have at least 2 hCG measurements. Human chorionic(More)
BACKGROUND Tubal ectopic pregnancy can be surgically treated by salpingectomy, in which the affected Fallopian tube is removed, or salpingotomy, in which the tube is preserved. Despite potentially increased risks of persistent trophoblast and repeat ectopic pregnancy, salpingotomy is often preferred over salpingectomy because the preservation of both tubes(More)