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Emissions of particles, gases, heat, and water vapor from ships are discussed with respect to their potential for changing the microstructure of marine stratiform clouds and producing the phenomenon known as ''ship tracks.'' Airborne measurements are used to derive emission factors of SO 2 and NO from diesel-powered and steam turbine-powered ships, burning(More)
The physical and radiative properties of a composite ship track are described from the analysis of 131 ship– ship track correlation pairs collected during the Monterey Area Ship Track experiment. The significant variability of ship tracks around their average characteristics is also described. The nominal environmental conditions for the ship track set are(More)
Anomalously high reflectivity tracks in stratus and stratocumulus sheets associated with ships (known as ship tracks) are commonly seen in visible and near-infrared satellite imagery. Until now there have been only a limited number of in situ measurements made in ship tracks. The Monterey Area Ship Track (MAST) experiment, which was conducted off the coast(More)
In this paper we consider the problem of constructing secure auctions based on techniques from modern cryptography. We combine knowledge from economics, threshold cryptography and security engineering to implement secure auctions for practical real-world problems.
The authors investigate the extent to which the contrast brightness of ship tracks, that is, the relative change in observed solar reflectance, in visible and near-infrared imagery can be explained by the microphysics of the background cloud in which they form. The sensitivity of visible and near-infrared wavelengths for detecting reflectance changes in(More)
In this paper we consider the problem of constructing secure auctions based on techniques from modern cryptography. We combine knowledge from economics, cryptography and security engineering and develop and implement secure auctions for practical real-world problems. In essence this paper is an overview of the research project which attempts to build(More)
We report on the design and implementation of a system that uses mul-tiparty computation to enable banks to benchmark their customers' confidential performance data against a large representative set of confidential performance data from a consultancy house. The system ensures that both the banks' and the consultancy house's data stays confidential, the(More)
The effects of anthropogenic particulate emissions from ships on the radiative, microphysical, and chemical properties of moderately polluted marine stratiform clouds are examined. A case study of two ships in the same air mass is presented where one of the vessels caused a discernible ship track while the other did not. In situ measurements of cloud(More)