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This paper provides an overview of forward dynamic neuromusculoskeletal modeling. The aim of such models is to estimate or predict muscle forces, joint moments, and/or joint kinematics from neural signals. This is a four-step process. In the first step, muscle activation dynamics govern the transformation from the neural signal to a measure of muscle(More)
Nonlinearities have been observed in the isometric EMG-force relationship. However, these are generally not included when using EMG-driven Hill-type muscle models that account for muscle activation dynamics. In this paper, we present a formulation for a one-parameter transformation model (i.e., A-model) that accounts for the type of physiological(More)
The external knee adduction moment during walking and stair climbing has a characteristic double hump pattern. The magnitude of the adduction moment is associated with the development and progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). There is an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the second peak adduction moment and foot progression(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional experimental laboratory study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between hip strength and hip kinematics, and between arch structure and knee kinematics during prolonged treadmill running in runners with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). BACKGROUND Hip weakness can lead to excessive femoral motions(More)
The overall goal of this work was to determine an optimal surface-tracking marker set for tracking motion of the tibia during natural cadence walking. Eleven different marker sets were evaluated. The marker sets differed in the location they were attached to the shank, the method used to attach the marker sets to the segment and the physical characteristics(More)
Ultrasonography was used to measure pennation angle and electromyography (EMG) to record muscle activity of the human tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles during graded isometric ankle plantar and dorsiflexion contractions done on a Biodex dynamometer. Data from 8 male and 8 female subjects(More)
It is important to know the magnitude and patterns of joint loading in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), since altered loads are implicated in onset and progression of the disease. We used an EMG-driven forward dynamics model to estimate joint loads during walking in a subject with knee OA and a healthy control subject. Kinematic, kinetic, and surface(More)
BACKGROUND Isolated gastrocnemius contracture limits ankle dorsiflexion with full knee extension and is potentially problematic during mid-stance of gait when 10° of dorsiflexion and full knee extension are needed. It is during this time that patients with isolated gastrocnemius contracture may demonstrate altered kinematics and/or kinetics. When(More)
The advantage of a three-dimensional over a two-dimensional approach to rearfoot analysis has been questioned in the past. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in typical rearfoot variables obtained using a two-dimensional analysis compared with a three-dimensional approach. In addition, the influence of foot placement angle on these(More)
Researchers conduct gait analyses utilizing both overground and treadmill modes of running. Previous studies comparing these modes analyzed discrete variables. Recently, techniques involving quantitative pattern analysis have assessed kinematic curve similarity in gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hip, knee and rearfoot 3-D(More)