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This paper provides an overview of forward dynamic neuromusculoskeletal modeling. The aim of such models is to estimate or predict muscle forces, joint moments, and/or joint kinematics from neural signals. This is a four-step process. In the first step, muscle activation dynamics govern the transformation from the neural signal to a measure of muscle(More)
BACKGROUND Whether an Achilles tendon rupture is treated surgically or not, complications such as muscle weakness, decrease in heel-rise height, and gait abnormalities persist after injury. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate if side-to-side differences in maximal heel-rise height can be explained by differences in Achilles tendon length. (More)
Nonlinearities have been observed in the isometric EMG-force relationship. However, these are generally not included when using EMG-driven Hill-type muscle models that account for muscle activation dynamics. In this paper, we present a formulation for a one-parameter transformation model (i.e., A-model) that accounts for the type of physiological(More)
The external knee adduction moment during walking and stair climbing has a characteristic double hump pattern. The magnitude of the adduction moment is associated with the development and progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). There is an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the second peak adduction moment and foot progression(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional experimental laboratory study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between hip strength and hip kinematics, and between arch structure and knee kinematics during prolonged treadmill running in runners with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). BACKGROUND Hip weakness can lead to excessive femoral motions(More)
The overall goal of this work was to determine an optimal surface-tracking marker set for tracking motion of the tibia during natural cadence walking. Eleven different marker sets were evaluated. The marker sets differed in the location they were attached to the shank, the method used to attach the marker sets to the segment and the physical characteristics(More)
BACKGROUND Isolated gastrocnemius contracture (IGC), which limits ankle dorsiflexion with full knee extension, can affect function and quality of life. Gastrocnemius recession is a treatment option for IGC when conservative treatment fails. The goal of this study was to assess range of motion, function, and plantarflexion strength pre- and 3-months(More)
BACKGROUND Isolated gastrocnemius contracture limits ankle dorsiflexion with full knee extension and is potentially problematic during mid-stance of gait when 10° of dorsiflexion and full knee extension are needed. It is during this time that patients with isolated gastrocnemius contracture may demonstrate altered kinematics and/or kinetics. When(More)
Consistent patterns of joint power underlie coordinated lower extremity behaviors such as running and walking. Recent work found that shoulder and elbow power consistently differed during reaching movements in the horizontal plane. Moreover, joint power during horizontal reaching appears correlated with motor cortical activity. It is not known if the(More)
The effect soft tissue movement of the shank had on knee joint moments during natural cadence walking was investigated in this study. This was examined by comparing knee moments determined from bone-anchored and surface mounted tracking targets. Six healthy adult subjects participated in this study. The largest difference (3 N m) occurred about the AP axis,(More)