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This paper provides an overview of forward dynamic neuromusculoskeletal modeling. The aim of such models is to estimate or predict muscle forces, joint moments, and/or joint kinematics from neural signals. This is a four-step process. In the first step, muscle activation dynamics govern the transformation from the neural signal to a measure of muscle(More)
Nonlinearities have been observed in the isometric EMG-force relationship. However, these are generally not included when using EMG-driven Hill-type muscle models that account for muscle activation dynamics. In this paper, we present a formulation for a one-parameter transformation model (i.e., A-model) that accounts for the type of physiological(More)
The external knee adduction moment during walking and stair climbing has a characteristic double hump pattern. The magnitude of the adduction moment is associated with the development and progression of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). There is an inverse relationship between the magnitude of the second peak adduction moment and foot progression(More)
The overall goal of this work was to determine an optimal surface-tracking marker set for tracking motion of the tibia during natural cadence walking. Eleven different marker sets were evaluated. The marker sets differed in the location they were attached to the shank, the method used to attach the marker sets to the segment and the physical characteristics(More)
Ultrasonography was used to measure pennation angle and electromyography (EMG) to record muscle activity of the human tibialis anterior (TA), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SOL) muscles during graded isometric ankle plantar and dorsiflexion contractions done on a Biodex dynamometer. Data from 8 male and 8 female subjects(More)
It is important to know the magnitude and patterns of joint loading in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA), since altered loads are implicated in onset and progression of the disease. We used an EMG-driven forward dynamics model to estimate joint loads during walking in a subject with knee OA and a healthy control subject. Kinematic, kinetic, and surface(More)
Researchers conduct gait analyses utilizing both overground and treadmill modes of running. Previous studies comparing these modes analyzed discrete variables. Recently, techniques involving quantitative pattern analysis have assessed kinematic curve similarity in gait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare hip, knee and rearfoot 3-D(More)
An EMG-driven virtual arm is being developed in our laboratories for the purposes of studying neuromuscular control of arm movements. The virtual arm incorporates the major muscles spanning the elbow joint and is used to estimate tension developed by individual muscles based on recorded electromyograms (EMGs). It is able to estimate joint moments and the(More)
STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional experimental laboratory study. OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationships between hip strength and hip kinematics, and between arch structure and knee kinematics during prolonged treadmill running in runners with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). BACKGROUND Hip weakness can lead to excessive femoral motions(More)
The effect soft tissue movement of the shank had on knee joint moments during natural cadence walking was investigated in this study. This was examined by comparing knee moments determined from bone-anchored and surface mounted tracking targets. Six healthy adult subjects participated in this study. The largest difference (3 N m) occurred about the AP axis,(More)