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The potential impact of ship emissions on concentrations of nitrogen oxides and reactive nitrogen compounds in the marine boundary layer is assessed using a global chemical transport model. The model predicts significant enhancements of these compounds over large regions, especially over the northern midlatitude oceans. This result is consistent with a(More)
A hot stable field-reversed configuration (FRC) has been produced in the C-2 experiment by colliding and merging two high-β plasmoids preformed by the dynamic version of field-reversed θ-pinch technology. The merging process exhibits the highest poloidal flux amplification obtained in a magnetic confinement system (over tenfold increase). Most of the(More)
A two-chord far infrared (FIR) laser polarimeter for high speed sub-degree Faraday rotation measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment is described. It is based on high power proprietary FIR lasers with line width of about 330 Hz. The exceptionally low intrinsic instrument phase error is characterized with figures of merit. Significant(More)
Field reversed configurations (FRCs) with high confinement are obtained in the C-2 device by combining plasma gun edge biasing and neutral beam injection. The plasma gun creates an inward radial electric field that counters the usual FRC spin-up. The n = 2 rotational instability is stabilized without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. The FRCs are nearly(More)
A long-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma has been produced in the C-2 device by dynamically colliding and merging two oppositely directed, highly supersonic compact toroids (CTs). The reversed-field structure of the translated CTs and final merged-FRC state have been directly verified by probing the internal magnetic field structure using a(More)
A new optically pumped far-infrared (FIR) laser with separate pump beam reflector and FIR output coupler has been developed. The new design greatly simplifies the tuning of the laser and enables the optimization of the pump beam absorption without affecting the laser alignment. Working with formic acid (HCOOH) vapor pumped by a 30 W CO<sub>2</sub> laser at(More)
A two-chord λ(IR)∼3.39 μm He-Ne laser interferometer system was developed for a flux-coil-generated field-reversed configuration to estimate the electron density and the total temperature of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. This two-chord heterodyne interferometer system consists of a single ∼2 mW infrared He-Ne laser, a visible (λ(vis)∼632.8(More)
In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the(More)
Magnetic measurements are a fundamental part of determining the size and shape of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas in the C-2 device. The magnetic probe suite consists of 44 in-vessel and ex-vessel probes constructed using various technologies: ultra-high vacuum compatible mineral-insulated cable, nested triple axis coils hand-wound on ceramic(More)