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We have recently cloned a novel cytokine, IL-15, with shared bioactivities but no sequence homology with IL-2. We found high affinity IL-15 binding to many cell types, including cells of non-lymphoid origin. Analysis of IL-15 interaction with subunits of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) revealed that the alpha subunit was not involved in IL-15 binding. We(More)
Two types of cellular IL-1Rs have been characterized and cloned from both human and murine sources. The type II IL-1R has a very short cytoplasmic domain and does not seem to participate in IL-1 signaling. We demonstrate that type II IL-1Rs are released from the surface of neutrophils in response to treatment with TNF or endotoxin. In addition, serum from(More)
A cytokine was identified that stimulated the proliferation of T lymphocytes, and a complementary DNA clone encoding this new T cell growth factor was isolated. The cytokine, designated interleukin-15 (IL-15), is produced by a wide variety of cells and tissues and shares many biological properties with IL-2. Monoclonal antibodies to the beta chain of the(More)
Two receptors for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL-1) have been cloned and characterized biochemically. While it has been well established that the type I (80-kDa) IL-1 receptor can mediate responses to IL-1, the function of the type II (60-kDa) IL-1 receptor has been unknown. In this manuscript we describe experiments designed to ask whether(More)
Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a novel cytokine of the four-helix bundle family which shares many biological activities with IL-2, probably due to its interaction with the IL-2 receptor beta and gamma (IL-2R beta and gamma c) chains. We report here the characterization and molecular cloning of a distinct murine IL-15R alpha chain. IL-15R alpha alone displays an(More)
Despite accumulating data implicating Propionibacterium acnes in a variety of diseases, its precise role in infection remains to be determined. P. acnes antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells are present in early inflamed acne lesions and may be involved in the inflammatory response; however, little is known about the specific antigens involved. In this study, B(More)
T cell-dependent regulation of B cell growth and differentiation involves an interaction between CD40, a B cell surface molecule, and the CD40 ligand (CD40L) which is expressed on activated CD4+ T cells. In the current study, we show that recombinant membrane-bound murine CD40L induces B cells to express costimulatory function for the proliferation of CD4+(More)
Recombinant granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors (rGM-CSF) of mouse and human origins activated macrophages of the homologous species to inhibit the replication of the protozoan parasite T. cruzi. Activation could be induced with 10-100 ng/ml of rMu-GM-CSF, whether it was added before or after uptake of the parasite, in either adherent or(More)
Our results indicate that interleukin (IL)-12 is an important costimulator of antigen-dependent proliferation of murine Th1 clones. In addition, we demonstrate that IL-10 inhibits splenic antigen-presenting cell (APC)-dependent proliferation of Th1 clones, at least in part, via down-regulation of APC-derived IL-12. Moreover, the failure of activated B cells(More)
The development of protein conjugate therapeutics requires control over the site of modification to allow for reproducible generation of a product with the desired potency, pharmacokinetic, and safety profile. Placement of a single nonnatural amino acid at the desired modification site of a recombinant protein, followed by a bioorthogonal reaction, can(More)