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Gene set analysis (GSA) is a widely used strategy for gene expression data analysis based on pathway knowledge. GSA focuses on sets of related genes and has established major advantages over individual gene analyses, including greater robustness, sensitivity and biological relevance. However, previous GSA methods have limited usage as they cannot handle(More)
Wnts comprise a family of secreted signaling proteins that regulate diverse developmental processes. Activation of Wnt signaling by Wnt10b inhibits differentiation of preadipocytes and blocks adipose tissue development; however, the effect of Wnt10b on other mesenchymal lineages has not been defined. To explore the physiological role of Wnt signaling in(More)
Mesenchymal precursor cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including adipocytes and osteoblasts. Activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling shifts mesenchymal cell fate toward osteoblastogenesis at the expense of adipogenesis; however, molecular mechanisms by which Wnt signaling alters mesenchymal cell fate have not been fully(More)
Signal transduction via guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) is involved in cardiovascular, neural, endocrine, and immune cell function. Regulators of G protein signaling (RGS proteins) speed the turn-off of G protein signals and inhibit signal transduction, but the in vivo roles of RGS proteins remain poorly defined. To overcome the redundancy(More)
Adult stem cells offer the potential to treat many diseases through a combination of ex vivo genetic manipulation and autologous transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, also referred to as marrow stromal cells) are adult stem cells that can be isolated as proliferating, adherent cells from bones. MSCs can differentiate into multiple cell types(More)
The implantation of non-biological materials, including scaffolds for tissue engineering, ubiquitously leads to a foreign body response (FBR). We recently reported that this response negatively impacts fibroblasts encapsulated within a synthetic hydrogel and in turn leads to a more severe FBR, suggesting a cross-talk between encapsulated cells and(More)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent, self-renewing, mesodermal-origin stem cells that are sequestered in the endosteal compartment. MSC are maintained in a relative state of quiescence in vivo but in response to a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli, proliferate and differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes,(More)
Leptin functions through a well-documented central neuroendocrine pathway to regulate bone mass. However, the ability of leptin to modulate bone mass through a peripheral mechanism has been debated due to conflicting in vitro results and lack of sufficient in vivo models. We utilized mice with LoxP sites introduced into the long-form leptin receptor (ObRb)(More)
Integrins mediate cell adhesion to extracellular matrix components. Integrin alpha 1 beta 1 is a collagen receptor expressed on many mesenchymal cells, but mice deficient in alpha 1 integrin (alpha1-KO) have no gross structural defects. Here, the regeneration of a fractured long bone was studied in alpha1-KO mice. These mice developed significantly less(More)
Thrombospondin-2 (TSP2) is a matricellular protein with increased expression during growth and regeneration. TSP2-null mice show accelerated dermal wound healing and enhanced bone formation. We hypothesized that bone regeneration would be enhanced in the absence of TSP2. Closed, semistabilized transverse fractures were created in the tibias of wildtype (WT)(More)