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PURPOSE Reasons for worldwide variability in the burden of primary malignant brain and central nervous system (CNS) tumors remain unclear. This study compares the incidence and survival of malignant brain and CNS tumors by selected histologic types between the United States (US) and Taiwan. METHODS Data from 2002 to 2010 were selected from two(More)
BACKGROUND Brain tissue scarring (gliosis) was believed to be the major cause of epileptic focus after brain injury, and prevention of scarring could reduce the incidence of seizure. We tried the HA coating onto the cortical brain defect of Spraque-Dawley rats to reduce the marginal glial scarring. METHODS A 4 x 2 x 2 mm(3) cortical defect was created in(More)
Aberrant calpain activation is a key mediator of neuron death. We examined the cell-permeable calpain inhibitor MDL28170 in the pathophysiological processes after spinal cord injury (SCI) including p35-p25- cyclin-dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5) activation, tau hyperphosphorylation, neuron cell death, calpain I activation, astrogliosis, and microglia activation.(More)
OBJECT Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to be a potent neurotrophic factor that promotes the growth of projection neurons, dendritic arborization, and synaptogenesis. Its neuroprotective roles may be coordinated by activation of Akt, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), and thus inhibition of tau phosphorylation. The(More)
OBJECT Neuroinflammation, which is characterized by the overproduction of cytokines and chemokines, plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases, especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the brain, chemokines are predominantly released by astrocytes and microglias. Expression of RANTES, as well as other cytokines, is involved in the inflammatory(More)
The neuroprotective effect of baicalein is generally attributed to inhibition of 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) and suppression of oxidative stress, but recent studies showed that baicalein also activates hypoxia-inducible factor-α (HIF1α) through inhibition of prolyl hydrolase 2 (PHD2) and activation of the phosphatidylinositide-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt(More)
OBJECTIVE To observe the feasibility of using fibrin gel as a scaffold during rabbit spinal fusion with rat kidney cells carrying bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression vector. METHODS Normal Rattusnorvegicus (rat) kidney (NRK) cells were transfected with pCMV-BMP2 vectors by using a nonviral reagent (FuGENE6), following which the transfected(More)
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. The development of ankylosing spondylitis is still unclear. Genetics factors such as human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 and ERAP1 have been widely reported to associate to AS susceptibility. In this study, we enrolled 361 AS patients and selected four(More)