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The androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to systematically suppress/reduce androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the standard therapy for prostate cancer (PCa); yet, most of ADT eventually fails leading to the recurrence of castration resistant PCa. Here, we found that the PCa patients who received ADT had increased PCa stem/progenitor cell(More)
Infiltrating macrophages are a key component of inflammation during tumorigenesis, but the direct evidence of such linkage remains unclear. We report here that persistent coculturing of immortalized prostate epithelial cells with macrophages, without adding any carcinogens, induces prostate tumorigenesis and that induction involves the alteration of(More)
Experimental and clinical findings support the essential role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of various human cancers and provide a rationale for targeted therapeutic investigations. A novel peptide, S7, which selectively binds to IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) alpha chain (gp80) and broadly inhibits IL-6-mediated events, was identified using phage(More)
Early studies have reported the differential roles of androgen receptor (AR) in different types (luminal, basal intermediate, and stromal) of prostate cancer cells. In vivo mouse model tumor studies using the total prostate epithelial knockout mice (pes-ARKO) also revealed that AR played a suppressive role in proliferation of the CK5(+)/CK8(+)(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective in blocking tumor growth, but it eventually leads to the hormone-refractory state. The detailed mechanisms of the conversion from androgen dependence to androgen independence remain unclear.(More)
Targeting androgens/androgen receptor (AR) functions via androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, most tumors eventually recur despite ADT. Here we demonstrate that the prostate AR may function as both a suppressor and a proliferator to suppress or promote prostate cancer metastasis. Results from(More)
To differentiate roles of androgen receptor (AR) in prostate stromal and epithelial cells, we have generated inducible-(ind)ARKO-TRAMP and prostate epithelial-specific ARKO TRAMP (pes-ARKO-TRAMP) mouse models, in which the AR was knocked down in both prostate epithelium and stroma or was knocked out in the prostate epithelium, respectively. We found that(More)
Cutaneous wounds heal more slowly in elderly males than in elderly females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the healing process. Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing. AR is expressed in several cell types in healing skin, including keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and infiltrating(More)
Stromal-epithelial interaction plays a pivotal role to mediate the normal prostate growth, the pathogenesis of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and prostate cancer development. Until now, the stromal androgen receptor (AR) functions in the BPH development, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we used a genetic knockout approach to(More)
Stromal-epithelial interaction is crucial to mediate normal prostate and prostate cancer (PCa) development. The indispensable roles of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) for the prostate organogenesis have been demonstrated by using tissue recombination from wild-type and testicular feminized mice. However, the stromal AR functions in the tumour(More)