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Targeting androgens/androgen receptor (AR) functions via androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) remains the standard treatment for prostate cancer. However, most tumors eventually recur despite ADT. Here we demonstrate that the prostate AR may function as both a suppressor and a proliferator to suppress or promote prostate cancer metastasis. Results from(More)
The androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to systematically suppress/reduce androgens binding to the androgen receptor (AR) has been the standard therapy for prostate cancer (PCa); yet, most of ADT eventually fails leading to the recurrence of castration resistant PCa. Here, we found that the PCa patients who received ADT had increased PCa stem/progenitor cell(More)
To differentiate roles of androgen receptor (AR) in prostate stromal and epithelial cells, we have generated inducible-(ind)ARKO-TRAMP and prostate epithelial-specific ARKO TRAMP (pes-ARKO-TRAMP) mouse models, in which the AR was knocked down in both prostate epithelium and stroma or was knocked out in the prostate epithelium, respectively. We found that(More)
Early studies suggested androgen receptor (AR) splice variants might contribute to the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) into castration resistance. However, the therapeutic strategy to target these AR splice variants still remains unresolved. Through tissue survey of tumors from the same patients before and after castration resistance, we found that the(More)
Experimental and clinical findings support the essential role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of various human cancers and provide a rationale for targeted therapeutic investigations. A novel peptide, S7, which selectively binds to IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) alpha chain (gp80) and broadly inhibits IL-6-mediated events, was identified using phage(More)
Cutaneous wounds heal more slowly in elderly males than in elderly females, suggesting a role for sex hormones in the healing process. Indeed, androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to inhibit cutaneous wound healing. AR is expressed in several cell types in healing skin, including keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts, and infiltrating(More)
Neutrophils, the major phagocytes that form the first line of cell-mediated defense against microbial infection, are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation in response to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Here, we report that androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice are neutropenic and susceptible to acute bacterial(More)
Infiltrating macrophages are a key component of inflammation during tumorigenesis, but the direct evidence of such linkage remains unclear. We report here that persistent coculturing of immortalized prostate epithelial cells with macrophages, without adding any carcinogens, induces prostate tumorigenesis and that induction involves the alteration of(More)
UNLABELLED Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been considered as an alternative therapy, replacing liver transplantation in clinical trials, to treat liver cirrhosis, an irreversible disease that may eventually lead to liver cancer development. However, low survival rate of the BM-MSCs leading to unsatisfactory efficacy(More)
Stromal-epithelial interaction is crucial to mediate normal prostate and prostate cancer (PCa) development. The indispensable roles of mesenchymal/stromal androgen receptor (AR) for the prostate organogenesis have been demonstrated by using tissue recombination from wild-type and testicular feminized mice. However, the stromal AR functions in the tumour(More)