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Injection with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the nigrostriatal pathway results in loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which has been used widely as an animal model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, location and extent of lesions 1 day after 6-OHDA injections (2, 4, 8, or 16 microg as a free base) in the substantia nigra (SN) were(More)
This study was designed to investigate possible involvement of type IV collagenolytic matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs; 72-kDa type IV collagenase [MMP-2], 92-kDa type IV collagenase [MMP-9]), and the respective specific tissue inhibitors of these MMPs (TIMP-2 and TIMP-1) in the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We determined the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The gut-brain axis, which transmits nutrient information from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain, is important for the detection of dietary nutrients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of the rat forebrain to investigate how this pathway conveys nutrient information from the gastrointestinal tract to the brain. METHODS(More)
Monosodium l-glutamate (MSG), an umami taste substance, may be a key molecule coupled to a food intake signaling pathway, possibly mediated through a specific l-glutamate (GLU) sensing mechanism in the gastrointestinal tract. Here we investigated the effect of the spontaneous ingestion of a 1% MSG solution and water on food intake and body weight in male(More)
l-Glutamate is a multifunctional amino acid involved in taste perception, intermediary metabolism, and excitatory neurotransmission. In addition, recent studies have uncovered new roles for l-glutamate in gut-brain axis activation and energy homeostasis. l-Glutamate receptors and their cellular transduction molecules have recently been identified in gut(More)
The preference for foods or fluids in rats is partly dependent on its postingestive consequences. Many studies have investigated postingestive effect of high caloric substances, such as carbohydrate or fat. In this study, we examined postingestive effect of L-glutamate at the preferable concentration using conditioned flavor preference paradigm. Adult male(More)
It is well known that the postingestive effect modulates subsequent food preference. We previously showed that monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) can increase flavor preference by its postingestive effect. The neural pathway involved in mediating this effect, however, remains unknown. We show here the role of the vagus nerve in acquiring this learned flavor(More)
It is important to investigate the effect of anesthesia on blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in an animal model. Many researchers have investigated the BOLD response to visual, sensory, and chemical stimuli in anesthetized rats. There are no reports, however, comparing the differences in the BOLD signal change between anesthetized and(More)
Free amino acid composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the rat was measured to examine if electrical activity of neurons in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) is modulated by amino acids at CSF levels. In CSF collected through a cannula in the cerebromedullary cistern of freely moving rats, the total concentration of amino acids was 979(More)
STUDY DESIGN Postoperative back muscle injury was evaluated in rats by magnetic resonance imaging and histologic analyses. OBJECTIVE To compare the magnetic resonance imaging manifestation of back muscle injury with the histologic findings in rats and to subsequently clarify the histopathologic appearance of the high intensity regions on T2-weighted(More)