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OBJECTIVE To determine gray matter (GM) atrophy rates in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at all stages of disease, and to identify predictors and clinical correlates of GM atrophy. METHODS MS patients and healthy control subjects were observed over 4 years with standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neurological examinations. Whole-brain, GM,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the hypothesis that the extent of corpus callosum injury indicates the depth of shearing lesions in the central brain structure and therefore relates to the clinical severity of diffuse axonal injury. METHODS A simple and objective procedure for semiquantitative analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI)-the maximum signal intensity(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects both white matter and gray matter (GM). Measurement of GM volumes is a particularly useful method to estimate the total extent of GM tissue damage because it can be done with conventional magnetic resonance images (MRI). Many algorithms exist for segmentation of GM, but none were specifically designed to handle issues(More)
Gray matter atrophy provides important insights into neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be used as a marker of neuroprotection in clinical trials. Jacobian integration is a method for measuring volume change that uses integration of the local Jacobian determinants of the nonlinear deformation field registering two images, and is a(More)
OBJECTIVE T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a sensitive tool for monitoring progression of multiple sclerosis, but it does not provide information on the severity of the underlying tissue damage. Measurement of T1 hypointensities and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) can potentially distinguish lesions with more severe tissue damage. The objective(More)
Measurement of changes in brain cortical thickness is useful for the assessment of regional gray matter atrophy in neurodegenerative conditions. A new longitudinal method, called CLADA (cortical longitudinal atrophy detection algorithm), has been developed for the measurement of changes in cortical thickness in magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired over(More)
We investigated fluctuations in brain volume throughout the day using statistical modeling of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from large populations. We applied fully automated image analysis software to measure the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF), defined as the ratio of the brain parenchymal volume and intracranial volume, thus accounting for variations(More)
OBJECTIVE Presently there is no clinically feasible imaging modality that can effectively detect cortical demyelination in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this study is to determine if clinically feasible magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging is sensitive to cortical demyelination in MS. METHODS MRI were acquired in situ on 7(More)
Brain volume change measured from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a widely used and useful in vivo measure of irreversible tissue loss. These measurements, however, can be influenced by reversible factors such as shifts in brain water content. Given the strong effect of water on T2 relaxation, we investigated whether an estimate of T2 relaxation(More)
BACKGROUND Relapses of multiple sclerosis decrease during pregnancy, when the hormone estriol is increased. Estriol treatment is anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective in preclinical studies. In a small single-arm study of people with multiple sclerosis estriol reduced gadolinium-enhancing lesions and was favourably immunomodulatory. We assessed whether(More)