Kunio Kawamura

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The 5′-phosphorimidazolide of uridine reacts on Na+-montmorillonite 22A in aqueous solution to give oligomers as long as 7 mers. The maximum chain length increases to 9 mers and the overall oligomer yield increases when 9:1 ImpU, A5′ ppA mixtures react under the same conditions. The oligomer yield and maximum chain length decreases with the structure of the(More)
During the course of the study of the hydrothermal stability of alanine oligopeptides, a small amount of oligopeptides longer than the starting oligopeptides was found in the reaction products. On the basis of this unexpected finding and the investigation of the reaction mechanism, the elongation of oligopeptides using (Ala)3, (Ala)4, and (Ala)5 was(More)
The montmorillonite clay catalyzed condensation of activated monocleotides to oligomers of RNA is a possible first step in the formation of the proposed RNA world. The rate constants for the condensation of the phosphorimidazolide of adenosine were measured previously and these studies have been extended to the phosphorimidazolides of inosine and uridine in(More)
The roles of thermal copolymers of amino acids (TCAA) were studied for the prebiotic degradation of RNA. A weak catalytic ability of TCAA consisted of Glu, L-Ala, L-Val, L-Glu, L-Asp, and optionally L-His was detected for the cleavage of the ribose phosphodiester bond of a tetranucleotide (5'-dCrCdGdG) in aqueous solution at 80 degees C. The rate constants(More)
In order to evaluate the possibility of the RNA world hypothesis from the viewpoint of hydrothermal origin of life, parallel investigations on the formation and decomposition of RNA are indispensable under hydrothermal conditions. In this report, comparison of the rates of the template-directed formation and hydrolytic decomposition of RNA in aqueous(More)
Biopolymer accumulation in the absence of enzymes is an essential step for the chemical evolution of primitive life-like systems, and successful simulation experiments of prebiotic biopolymer formation have suggested that oligopeptides could have formed near submarine hydrothermal vent environments on primitive earth. However, the yield and length of(More)
Following the discovery of ribozymes, the "RNA world" hypothesis has become the most accepted hypothesis concerning the origin of life and genetic information. However, this hypothesis has several drawbacks. Verification of the hypothesis from different viewpoints led us to proposals from the viewpoint of the hydrothermal origin of life, solubility of RNA(More)
Accumulation of biopolymers should have been an essential step for the emergence of life on primitive Earth. However, experimental simulations for submarine hydrothermal vent systems in which high-temperature water spouts through minerals within a short time scale have not been attempted. Here, we show that enhancement of hydrothermal oligopeptide(More)
Kinetic analysis of hydrolytic stability of 2',5'- and 3',5'-linked dinucleoside monophosphate (N(2)'pN and N(3)'pN) was successfully performed in aqueous solution at 175-240 degrees C using a new real-time monitoring method for rapid hydrothermal reactions. The half-lives of NpN were in the range 2-8 s at 240 degrees C and apparent activation energy(More)
In situ monitoring of quantities, interactions, and conformations of proteins is essential for the study of biochemistry under hydrothermal environments and the analysis of hyperthermophilic organisms in natural hydrothermal systems on Earth. We have investigated the potential of a capillary-flow hydrothermal UV-vis spectrophotometer (CHUS) for performing(More)