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Nuclear factor TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is considered to play roles in pathogenesis of human neurodegenerative diseases, so-called TDP-43 proteinopathy, via its proteolytic cleavage, abnormal phosphorylation, subcellular redistribution, and insolubilization generating TDP-43-positive neuronal intracellular inclusions. The purpose of this study(More)
An angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), might be associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after focal cerebral ischemia; however, it remains unknown whether hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment is related to the activation of VEGF signaling pathway in BBB. Here, we(More)
In the central nervous system, progranulin, a glycoprotein growth factor, plays a crucial role in maintaining physiological functions, and progranulin gene mutations cause TAR DNA-binding protein-43-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Although several studies have reported that progranulin plays a protective role against ischaemic brain injury,(More)
An angiogenesis factor, angiopoietin-1 (Ang1), is associated with the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after focal cerebral ischemia. However, whether hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema after tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment are related to the decrease in Ang1 expression in the BBB remains unknown. We hypothesized that(More)
RNA played a central role in the emergence of the first life-like system on primitive Earth since RNA molecules contain both genetic information and catalytic activity. However, there are several drawbacks regarding the RNA world hypothesis. Here, I briefly discuss the feasibility of the RNA world hypothesis to deduce the RNA functions that are essential(More)
Darwinian evolutionary theory has played a central role in the life sciences. However, this principle is rarely applied to exceptional life-like systems such as human societies and the life-like chemical systems associated with the origin of life. For a description of the nature of these exceptional life-like biosystems, the development of alternative(More)
We compared the expected medical costs of empirical and preemptive treatment strategies for invasive fungal infection in neutropenic patients with hematological diseases. Based on the results of two clinical trials with different backgrounds reported by Oshima et al. [J Antimicrob Chemother 60(2):350–355; Oshima study] and Cordonnier et al. [Clin Infect Dis(More)
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