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Cinnamycin is a unique toxin in that its receptor, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), resides in the inner layer of the plasma membrane. Little is known about how the toxin recognizes PE and causes cytotoxicity. We showed that cinnamycin induced transbilayer phospholipid movement in target cells that leads to the exposure of inner leaflet PE to the toxin. Model(More)
Duramycin is a 19-amino-acid tetracyclic lantibiotic closely related to cinnamycin (Ro09-0198), which is known to bind phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The lipid specificity of duramycin was not established. The present study indicates that both duramycin and cinnamycin exclusively bind to ethanolamine phospholipids (PE and ethanolamine plasmalogen). Model(More)
Cell surface phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) of the yeast cell was probed by biotinylated Ro09-0198 (Bio-Ro), which specifically binds to PE and was visualized with fluorescein-labelled streptavidin. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the signals were observed at the presumptive bud site, the emerging small bud cortex, the bud neck of the late mitotic large-budded(More)
Linking bioactive compounds to their cellular targets is a central challenge in chemical biology. Here we report the mode of action of theonellamides, bicyclic peptides derived from marine sponges. We generated a chemical-genomic profile of theonellamide F using a collection of fission yeast strains in which each open reading frame (ORF) is expressed under(More)
—We report on a new roadblock which will limit the gate oxide thickness scaling of MOSFETs. It is found that statistical distribution of direct tunnel leakage current through 1.2 to 2.8 nm thick gate oxides induces significant fluctuations in the threshold voltage and transconductance when the gate oxide tunnel resistance becomes comparable to gate poly-Si(More)
Enzyme enhancement therapy (EET) for Fabry disease involving imino sugars has been developed and attracted interest. It is thought that imino sugars act as pharmacological chaperones for wild-type and mutant alpha-galactosidases (GLAs) in cells, but the mechanisms underlying the molecular interactions between the imino sugars and the enzyme have not been(More)
Cholesterol plays important roles in biological membranes. The cellular location where cholesterol molecules work is prerequisite information for understanding their dynamic action. Bioimaging probes for cholesterol molecules would be the most powerful means for unraveling the complex nature of lipid membranes. However, only a limited number of chemical or(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, enzyme enhancement therapy (EET) for Pompe disease involving imino sugars, which act as potential inhibitors of acid alpha-glucosidases in vitro, to improve the stability and/or transportation of mutant acid alpha-glucosidases in cells was studied and attracted interest. However, the mechanism underlying the molecular interaction(More)
We visualized nanometer-scale phospholipid particle fusion by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) on an alkanethiol-modified gold substrate, induced by duramycin, a tetracyclic antibiotic peptide with 19 amino residues. Ultrasonic homogenization generated a suspension mainly consisting of minimal lipid particles (MLP) from(More)