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Axon pruning is a common phenomenon in neural circuit development. Previous studies demonstrate that the engulfing action of glial cells is essential in this process. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C. elegans, function in the(More)
ALA is a key precursor in the biosynthesis of porphyrins such as chlorophyll and heme, and was found to induce temporary elevations in the photosynthesis rate, APX, and CAT; furthermore, treatment with ALA at a low concentration might be correlated to the increase of NaCl tolerance of spinach plants. The photosynthetic rate and the levels of active(More)
The Drosophila circadian clock consists of integrated autoregulatory feedback loops, making the clock difficult to elucidate without comprehensively identifying the network components in vivo. Previous studies have adopted genome-wide screening for clock-controlled genes using high-density oligonucleotide arrays that identified hundreds of clock-controlled(More)
During Drosophila embryogenesis, the ventral epidermis dorsally expands and the left and right epithelial sheets meet and fuse along the dorsal midline. For this dorsal closure to occur, two PDZ domain proteins, Cno and ZO-1, are required. The dorsal epidermis remains open when the expression of ZO-1 and Cno are reduced simultaneously by hypomorphic(More)
The Drosophila immune system discriminates between different classes of infectious microbes and responds with pathogen-specific defense reactions via the selective activation of the Toll and the immune deficiency (Imd) signaling pathways. The Toll pathway mediates most defenses against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi, whereas the Imd pathway is required to(More)
Walker-Warburg syndrome, caused by mutations in protein O-mannosyltransferase-1 (POMT1), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe brain malformation, muscular dystrophy, and structural eye abnormalities. As humans have a second POMT, POMT2, we cloned each Drosophila ortholog of the human POMT genes and carried out RNA interference (RNAi)(More)
Neurons are highly polarized cells with distinct subcellular compartments, including dendritic arbors and an axon. The proper function of the nervous system relies not only on correct targeting of axons, but also on development of neuronal-class-specific geometry of dendritic arbors [1-4]. To study the intercellular control of the shaping of dendritic trees(More)
Rhabdomeres of the Drosophila melanogaster canoe mis1 mutant ommatidia were twisted, branched, and often fused to each other. A considerable proportion of rhabdomeres were found to have fallen below the retinal basement membrane. Electron-microscopic observations of the mutant ommatidia revealed that microvilli, the subcellular structures composing the(More)
Clotting is critical in limiting hemolymph loss and initiating wound healing in insects as in vertebrates. It is also an important immune defense, quickly forming a secondary barrier to infection, immobilizing bacteria and thereby promoting their killing. However, hemolymph clotting is one of the least understood immune responses in insects. Here, we(More)
Subjects Of patients with intractable atopic dermatitis (AD) who visited the outpatient clinic of our hospital between January and December 2000, 140 patients who consented to have photographs taken were selected as the subjects of this summary. All patients met the criteria of AD proposed by Hanifin and Rajka (1). It was first confirmed that conventional(More)