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In intracerebral hemorrhage, microglia become rapidly activated and remove the deposited blood and cellular debris. To survive in a harmful hemorrhagic or posthemorrhagic condition, activated microglia must be equipped with appropriate self-defensive mechanism(s) to resist the toxicity of hemin, a component released from damaged RBCs. In the current study,(More)
Seven prenylated flavanoids, licoflavone C (1), cyclomulberrin (2), neocyclomorusin (3), sanggenon I (4), morusin (5), kuwanon U (6) and kuwanon E (7), and three 2-arylbenzofurans, moracin P (8), moracin O (9), and mulberrofuran Q (10) were isolated from the MeOH extract of Mori Cortex Radicis. Among these, compounds 2-7 enhanced cell viability in a(More)
Oxidative stress is related to the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which cause skin aging. The protective effects of mangiferin derived from Anemarrhena asphodeloides were investigated against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced damage using human skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells. Mangiferin was found to scavenge intracellular reactive oxygen(More)
tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) is a commonly used antioxidant additive that is approved for human use by both the Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). In this study, we examined the effect of tBHQ on body weight gain and found that food supplementation with 0.001 % (w/w) tBHQ inhibited 61.4 % (P < 0.01) of body(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) have powerful stimulatory effects on food intake, which suggests that the downregulation of brain NPY or AgRP may help reduce obesity and diabetes by inhibiting food intake. To search for active compounds that inhibit NPY and AgRP expression, we made two luciferase reporter assay systems consisting of(More)
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which is a primary cytokine responsible for inflammatory responses in skin, induces the synthesis of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which causes skin aging. The protective effects of 3-deoxysappanchalcone against TNF-α-induced damage was investigated using human skin keratinocytes. The results showed that(More)
Bee venom is used as a traditional medicine for treatment of arthritis. The anti-inflammatory activity of the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous partitions from bee venom (Apis mellifera) was studied using cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) production, in vitro. COX-2 is involved in the production of(More)
Sortase enzymes belong to a family of transpeptidases found in Gram-positive bacteria. Sortase is responsible for the reaction that anchors surface protein virulence factors to the peptidoglycan cell wall of the bacteria. The compound (Z)-3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) acrylonitrile (DMMA) has previously been reported as a novel sortase(More)
Tilianin has been shown to down-regulate TNF-alpha induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. In this study, we examined the anti-atherogenic effects and molecular mechanism of tilianin in vitro and in vivo. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor null mice (Ldlr-/-) fed a high cholesterol diet showed significant increases in(More)
Endosulfan is one of the organochlorine pesticides, which are well-known endocrine disruptors (EDs), and it acts as an estrogen agonist. Estrogen is a group of hormones that play an important role in mammary gland function and are implicated in mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we studied the effects of endosulfan on nodule like alveolar lesion(More)