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—The effect of the foam covered ocean surface on the passive microwave remote sensing measurements is studied based on the electromagnetic scattering theory. In fomulating an electromagnetic scattering model, we treat the foam as densely packed sticky air bubbles coated with thin seawater coating. The layer of foam covers the ocean surface that has air(More)
—For electromagnetic (EM) scattering by dense media, the traditional approach is to use particles of spheres or ellipsoids that are densely and randomly packed in a background medium. The particles have discrete permittivities that are different from the background medium. The dense-medium model has been applied to the microwave remote sensing of(More)
—The foam-covered ocean surface is treated as densely packed air bubbles coated with thin layers of seawater. We apply Monte Carlo simulations of solutions of Maxwell's equations to calculate the absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients at 10.8 and 36.5 GHz. These quantities are then used in dense-media radiative transfer theory to calculate the(More)