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—The effect of the foam covered ocean surface on the passive microwave remote sensing measurements is studied based on the electromagnetic scattering theory. In fomulating an electromagnetic scattering model, we treat the foam as densely packed sticky air bubbles coated with thin seawater coating. The layer of foam covers the ocean surface that has air(More)
—The foam-covered ocean surface is treated as densely packed air bubbles coated with thin layers of seawater. We apply Monte Carlo simulations of solutions of Maxwell's equations to calculate the absorption, scattering, and extinction coefficients at 10.8 and 36.5 GHz. These quantities are then used in dense-media radiative transfer theory to calculate the(More)
— To investigate effects of diurnal thermal cycles on C-band polarimetric backscatter and millimeter-wave emission from sea ice, we carried out a winter experiment at the outdoor Geophysical Research Facility (GRF) in the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL). The ice sheet grew from open sea water to a thickness of 10 cm in 2.5 days,(More)