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PURPOSE To evaluate risk factors for pneumothorax and bleeding after computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous coaxial cutting needle biopsy of lung lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study involved 117 consecutive patients with 117 intrapulmonary lesions. Statistical analysis of factors related to patient characteristics, lung lesions, and biopsy(More)
We first consider subsmoothness for a function family and provide formulas of the subdifferential of the pointwise supremum of a family of subsmooth functions. Next, we consider subsmooth infinite and semi-infinite optimization problems. In particular, we provide several dual and primal characterizations for a point to be a sharp minimum or a weak sharp(More)
Several notions of constraint qualifications are generalized from the setting of convex inequality systems to that of convex generalized equations. This is done and investigated in terms of the coderivatives and the normal cones, and thereby we provide some characterizations for convex generalized equations to have the metric subregularity. As applications,(More)
This paper concerns a generalized equation defined by a closed multifunction between Banach spaces, and we employ variational analysis techniques to provide sufficient and/or necessary conditions for a generalized equation to have the metric subregularity (i.e., local error bounds for the concerned multifunction) in general Banach spaces. Following the(More)
Using variational analysis techniques, we study subsmooth multifunctions in Banach spaces. In terms of the normal cones and coderivatives, we provide some characterizations for such multifunctions to be calm. Sharper results are obtained for Asplund spaces. We also present some exact formulas of the modulus of the calmness. As applications, we provide some(More)