Learn More
Identifying genomic regions that have been targets of natural selection remains one of the most important and challenging areas of research in genetics. To this end, we report an analysis of 26,530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with allele frequencies that were determined in three populations. Specifically, we calculated a measure of genetic(More)
Recent studies suggest that haplotypes are arranged into discrete blocklike structures throughout the human genome. Here, we present an alternative haplotype block definition that assumes no recombination within each block but allows for recombination between blocks, and we use it to study the combined effects of demographic history and various population(More)
Defined transcription factors can induce epigenetic reprogramming of adult mammalian cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Although DNA factors are integrated during some reprogramming methods, it is unknown whether the genome remains unchanged at the single nucleotide level. Here we show that 22 human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell lines(More)
To reconstruct modern human evolutionary history and identify loci that have shaped hunter-gatherer adaptation, we sequenced the whole genomes of five individuals in each of three different hunter-gatherer populations at > 60× coverage: Pygmies from Cameroon and Khoesan-speaking Hadza and Sandawe from Tanzania. We identify 13.4 million variants,(More)
Meiosis is a germ-cell-specific cell division process through which haploid gametes are produced for sexual reproduction. Before the initiation of meiosis, mouse primordial germ cells undergo a series of epigenetic reprogramming steps, including the global erasure of DNA methylation at the 5-position of cytosine (5mC) in CpG-rich DNA. Although several(More)
TET dioxygenases successively oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in mammalian genomes to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC), and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC). 5fC/5caC can be excised and repaired to regenerate unmodified cytosines by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG) and base excision repair (BER) pathway, but it is unclear to what extent and at(More)
We developed a theoretical framework to prove the existence and quantify the Waddington landscape as well as chreode-biological paths for development and differentiation. The cells can have states with the higher probability ones giving the different cell types. Different cell types correspond to different basins of attractions of the probability landscape.(More)
Metabolism is vital to every aspect of cell function, yet the metabolome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains largely unexplored. Here we report, using an untargeted metabolomics approach, that human iPSCs share a pluripotent metabolomic signature with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that is distinct from their parental cells, and that is(More)