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BACKGROUND The plant working group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the two-locus combination of rbcL+matK as the plant barcode, yet the combination was shown to successfully discriminate among 907 samples from 550 species at the species level with a probability of 72%. The group admits that the two-locus barcode is far from perfect due(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) Vif is essential for viral evasion of host antiviral factor CEM15/APOBEC3G. We report that Vif interacts with cellular proteins Cul5, elongins B and C, and Rbx1 to form an Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF)-like complex. The ability of Vif to suppress antiviral activity of APOBEC3G was specifically dependent on Cul5-SCF function,(More)
BACKGROUND The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA is regarded as one of the candidate DNA barcodes because it possesses a number of valuable characteristics, such as the availability of conserved regions for designing universal primers, the ease of its amplification, and sufficient variability to distinguish even closely(More)
MicroRNAs can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in glioma. Previously, we showed that miR-107 inhibits glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Since tumor growth and invasion are closely related to angiogenesis, we further examined the role of miR-107 in glioma angiogenesis. In a co-culture of glioma cells and human brain microvascular(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized antigen-presenting cells that play crucial roles in the initiation and regulation of immune responses. Maturation and activation of DCs are controlled by a balance of the inhibitory and activating signals transduced through distinct surface receptors. Many inhibitory receptors expressed by DCs have been identified,(More)
Magnolia grandiflora is an important medicinal, ornamental and horticultural plant species. The chloroplast (cp) genome of M. grandiflora was sequenced using a 454 sequencing platform and the genome structure was compared with other related species. The complete cp genome of M. grandiflora was 159623 bp in length and contained a pair of inverted repeats(More)
The function of interleavers in turbo codes are analyzed and the disadvantages of some existing interleavers are pointed out. Two novel interleavers, named block-based S-random interleaver (BSI) and pseudo random-based S-random interleaver (PRSI) respectively, are designed and simulated. Compared to some existing interleavers, the designed interleavers have(More)
Although sterilizing immunity to malaria can be elicited by irradiated sporozoite vaccination, no clinically practical subunit vaccine has been shown to be capable of preventing the approximately 600,000 annual deaths attributed to this infection. DNA vaccines offer several potential advantages for a disease that primarily affects the developing world, but(More)
Angiogenesis is the growth of new capillaries from existing blood vessels that supply oxygen and nutrients and provide gateways for immune surveillance. Abnormal vessel growth in term of excessive angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer, inflammatory and eye diseases. VEGFR-2 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2) dominating the process of(More)
BACKGROUND Rhododendron is a group of famous landscape plants with high medicinal value. However, there is no simple or universal manner to discriminate the various species of this group. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) barcoding technique is a new biological tool that can accurately and objectively identify species by using short and standard DNA regions. (More)