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Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) is typically associated with stress responses and causes a reduction in protein synthesis. However, we found high phosphorylated eIF-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha[P]) levels in nonstressed pancreata of mice. Administration of glucose stimulated a rapid dephosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. Among the(More)
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Mice and cattle with inactivating mutations of myostatin have marked muscle hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether myostatin regulates skeletal muscle growth in adult men and whether increased myostatin expression contributes to(More)
We cloned and characterized a 3.3-kb fragment containing the 5'-regulatory region of the human myostatin gene. The promoter sequence contains putative muscle growth response elements for glucocorticoid, androgen, thyroid hormone, myogenic differentiation factor 1, myocyte enhancer factor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and nuclear(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and type of Yq microdeletions in 86 consecutive men that fathered 99 sons by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to determine the incidence of vertical transmission and de novo deletions in these boys. DESIGN Prospective clinical observational study. SETTING Genetics laboratory associated with a university(More)
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF2) by pancreatic eIF2 kinase (PEK), induces a program of translational expression in response to accumulation of malfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This study addresses the mechanisms activating PEK, also designated PERK or EIF2AK3. We describe the characterization of two regions in the(More)
Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. We have previously reported that recombinant myostatin protein inhibits DNA and protein synthesis in C2C12 cells. Our objective was to assess if C2C12 cells express myostatin, determine its sub-cellular localization and the developmental stage of C2C12 cells in which myostatin mRNA and protein are(More)
UNLABELLED The prevailing theory in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the "two-hit" hypothesis. The first hit mainly consists of lipid accumulation, and the second is subsequent systemic inflammation. The current study was undertaken to investigate whether inflammatory stress exacerbates lipid accumulation in liver and its underlying mechanisms.(More)
BACKGROUND Podocyte injury and subsequent excretion in urine play a crucial role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Quantification of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in urinary sediment by real-time PCR is emerging as a noninvasive method of screening DN-associated biomarkers. We hypothesized that the urinary mRNA profile of(More)
The mechanisms by which excessive glucocorticoids cause muscular atrophy remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that dexamethasone increases the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, in vitro. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dexamethasone-induced muscle loss is associated with increased myostatin(More)
This paper presents the co-production of hydrogen and methane from cornstalks by a two- or three-stage anaerobic fermentation process augmented with effective artificial microbial community. Two-stage fermentation by using the anaerobic sludge and DGGE analysis showed that effective and stable strains should be introduced into the system. We introduced(More)