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Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Mice and cattle with inactivating mutations of myostatin have marked muscle hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether myostatin regulates skeletal muscle growth in adult men and whether increased myostatin expression contributes to(More)
We cloned and characterized a 3.3-kb fragment containing the 5'-regulatory region of the human myostatin gene. The promoter sequence contains putative muscle growth response elements for glucocorticoid, androgen, thyroid hormone, myogenic differentiation factor 1, myocyte enhancer factor 2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and nuclear(More)
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha) is typically associated with stress responses and causes a reduction in protein synthesis. However, we found high phosphorylated eIF-2 alpha (eIF-2 alpha[P]) levels in nonstressed pancreata of mice. Administration of glucose stimulated a rapid dephosphorylation of eIF-2 alpha. Among the(More)
The mechanisms by which excessive glucocorticoids cause muscular atrophy remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that dexamethasone increases the expression of myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, in vitro. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that dexamethasone-induced muscle loss is associated with increased myostatin(More)
Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. We have previously reported that recombinant myostatin protein inhibits DNA and protein synthesis in C2C12 cells. Our objective was to assess if C2C12 cells express myostatin, determine its sub-cellular localization and the developmental stage of C2C12 cells in which myostatin mRNA and protein are(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and type of Yq microdeletions in 86 consecutive men that fathered 99 sons by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and to determine the incidence of vertical transmission and de novo deletions in these boys. DESIGN Prospective clinical observational study. SETTING Genetics laboratory associated with a university(More)
BACKGROUND A successful gene delivery system needs to breakthrough several barriers to allow efficient transgenic expression. In the present study, successive targeting liposomes (STL) were constructed by integrating various targeting groups into a nanoparticle to address this issue. METHODS Polyethylenimine (PEI) 1800-triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with(More)
Wetlands play important ecological, economic, and cultural roles in societies around the world. However, wetland degradation has become a serious ecological issue, raising the global sustainability concern. An accurate wetland map is essential for wetland management. Here we used a fuzzy method to create a hybrid wetland map for China through the(More)
OBJECTIVE Although inflammation is a recognized feature of atherosclerosis, the impact of inflammation on cellular cholesterol homeostasis is unclear. This study focuses on the molecular mechanisms by which inflammatory cytokines disrupt low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor regulation. METHODS AND RESULTS IL-1beta enhanced transformation of vascular(More)
Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressive agent and has an anti-atherosclerotic effect through its anti-proliferative property. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of sirolimus on intracellular cholesterol homeostasis in human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the presence of inflammatory cytokine IL-1 beta. We explored the effect(More)