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The heterotrimeric G-protein complex is minimally composed of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits. In the classic scenario, the G-protein complex is the nexus in signaling from the plasma membrane, where the heterotrimeric G-protein associates with heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), to cytoplasmic target proteins called effectors. Although a number of(More)
Although the immunomodulative properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) open up attractive possibilities in solid-organ transplantation, information concerning the optimal dose, route, timing of administration, major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restriction and relevant mechanisms is currently lacking. Therefore, better characterization of MSC(More)
Although recent evidence supports a tumor-suppressive role for the GTPase RhoB, little is known about its regulation by signal transduction pathways. Here we demonstrate that Ras downregulates RhoB expression by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)- and Akt- but not Mek-dependent mechanism. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacological blockade of PI3K/Akt(More)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) prevents cell apoptosis and promotes survival, but the involved mechanisms have not been completely defined. Although phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) has been implicated in IL-2-mediated survival mechanisms, none of the 3 chains of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expresses a binding site for PI 3-kinase. However, IL-2Rbeta does(More)
The DNA barcoding technology uses a standard region of DNA sequence for species identification and discovery. At present, "DNA barcode" actually refers to DNA sequences, which are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval. Our aim is to identify the best symbology that can represent DNA barcode sequences in practical applications. A(More)
This article presents a new methodology for estimation of vehicle's vertical forces in order to enhance road safety. Direct measurement of vertical forces requires a complex and expensive experimental set-up, which is not acceptable for ordinary passenger cars. The main contribution of this article is providing a reliable estimator of vertical tire forces(More)
BACKGROUND DNA barcoding technology, which uses a short piece of DNA sequence to identify species, has wide ranges of applications. Until today, a universal DNA barcode marker for plants remains elusive. The rbcL and matK regions have been proposed as the "core barcode" for plants and the ITS2 and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer (PTIGS) regions were later added(More)
Vehicle dynamics is an essential topic in development of safety driving systems. These complex and integrated control units require precise information about vehicle dynamics, especially, tire/road contact forces. Nevertheless, it is lacking an effective and low-cost sensor to measure them directly. Therefore, this study presents a new method to estimate(More)