Kumud Singh

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Over 50% of all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections worldwide are caused by subtype C strains, yet most research to date focuses on subtype B, the subtype most commonly found in North America and Europe. The HIV-1 trans-acting regulatory protein (Tat) is essential for regulating productive replication of HIV-1. Tat is secreted by(More)
Mannose binding lectin (MBL) mediated complement pathway is an important constituent of innate immune response in several infections including neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Although there are Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) for estimating MBL, MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) and functional MBL-MASP-2 (fMBL) proteins(More)
CCR2 is a minor coreceptor for human immune deficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and its impact on HIV-1-related neuropsychological impairment (NPI) remains unknown. We studied the impact of CCR2-V64I polymorphisms on the development of NPI in 121 HIV-1 patients. The CCR2-64-I allele was associated with rate of progression to NPI when measured from the first study(More)
Because monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 is an important cofactor in HIV neuropathogenesis, we investigated the relationship between MCP-1 genotype and expression in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We evaluated a genetic polymorphism in the MCP-1 promoter at position -2578 (alternatively designated -2518) in 98 HIV-infected subjects who had contemporaneously(More)
Cloud computing is bringing a revolution in computing environment replacing traditional software installations, licensing issues into complete on-demand services through internet. Microsoft office 365 a cloud based office application is available to clients online hence no need to buy and install the software. On Facebook a social networking website, users(More)
BACKGROUND HLA-DR*04 was identified as a predictor of HIV-Associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), low CD4 T-cell responses to HIV, and low plasma HIV RNA levels in a U.S. cohort. We hypothesized that low CD4 T-cell activation leads to poor immune control of HIV in the CNS, predisposing to HAND, but also provided fewer target (activated CD4 T-cells) for(More)
BACKGROUND HLA class I molecules are ligands for killer cell immunoglobin like receptors (KIR) that control the antiviral response of natural killer (NK) cells. However, the effects of KIR and HLA (KIR/HLA) alleles on HIV disease of children have not been studied. METHODS 993 antiretroviral naïve children with symptomatic HIV infection from PACTG(More)
The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS), the largest ongoing longitudinal study of perinatal HIV-infected (PHIV) and HIV-exposed, uninfected (PHEU) children in the United States, comprises the Surveillance Monitoring of Antiretroviral Therapy [ART] Toxicities (SMARTT) Study in PHEU children and the Adolescent Master Protocol (AMP) that includes PHIV and(More)
Oligoclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) bands are a frequent feature of inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). In multiple sclerosis (MS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) oligoclonal IgG bands are a potential clue to the pathogenesis of the disease; however, their particular antigenic target is unknown. We sought to characterize the IgG response in(More)
Role of mannose binding lectin (MBL) complement activation pathway, an arm of innate immunity in multiple sclerosis (MS) was evaluated by analyzing the expression of MBL, MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2), and functional MBL/MASP-2 mediated C4 cleavage (fMBL) in 87 plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from MS patients and non-MS controls.(More)