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Languages differ with respect to how aspects of motion events tend to be lexicalized. English typically conflates MOTION with MANNER, but Japanese and Spanish typically do not. We report a set of experiments that assessed the effect of this cross-linguistic difference on participants' decisions in a similarity-judgment task about scenes containing novel(More)
We tried to characterize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors involved in the release of catecholamines from the rat adrenal gland. The isolated adrenal gland was retrogradely perfused via the adrenal vein with Krebs-Ringer solution at a flow rate of 0.5 ml/min. Endogenous catecholamines, adrenaline and noradrenaline, released into the perfusate were(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Haemopressin and RVD-haemopressin, derived from the haemoglobin α-chain, are bioactive peptides found in brain and are ligands for cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Activation of brain CB1 receptors inhibited the secretion of adrenal catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) induced by i.c.v. bombesin in the rat. Here, we investigated(More)
The adrenal glands and sympathetic celiac ganglia are innervated mainly by the greater splanchnic nerves, which contain preganglionic sympathetic nerves that originated from the thoracic spinal cord. The adrenal medulla has two separate populations of chromaffin cells, adrenaline-containing cells (A-cells) and noradrenaline-containing cells (NA-cells),(More)
Previously we reported the cholinergic M2 muscarinic receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline release from the rat stomach (K. Yokotani, Y. Osumi. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;264:54-60). In the present study, we investigated the role of K+ channels in oxotremorine (a muscarinic receptor agonist)-induced inhibition of noradrenaline release using(More)
We previously reported that two types of K(+) channels, the BK type Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel coupled with phospholipase C (PLC) and the voltage-dependent K(+) channel (Kv channel), are, respectively, involved in the prostanoid TP receptor- and muscarinic M(2) receptor-mediated inhibition of noradrenaline (NA) release from rat gastric sympathetic(More)
The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus has a heterogenous structure containing different types of output neurons that project to the median eminence, posterior pituitary, brain stem autonomic centers and sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. Presympathetic neurons in the PVN send mono- and poly-synaptic projections to the(More)
Gastric hydrochloric acid (HCl) secretion is stimulated in vivo by histamine, acetylcholine, and gastrin. In vitro studies have shown that histamine acts mainly via a cAMP-dependent pathway, and acetylcholine acts via a calcium-dependent pathway. Histamine also elevates intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in parietal cells. Both gastrin and acetylcholine(More)
Extracellular zinc, which is released from hippocampal neurons in response to brain ischaemia, triggers morphological changes in microglia. Under ischaemic conditions, microglia exhibit two opposite activation states (M1 and M2 activation), which may be further regulated by the microenvironment. We examined the role of extracellular zinc on M1 activation of(More)
Previously, we reported that central administration of bombesin, a stress-related peptide, elevated plasma levels of catecholamines (noradrenaline and adrenaline) in the rat. The sympatho-adrenomedullary system, which is an important component of stress responses, can be regulated by the central opioid system. In the present study, therefore, we examined(More)