Kumiko Mukaida

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BACKGROUND Microdialysis studies have demonstrated that the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the serotonergic projection areas increases during waking and decreases during sleep in rat and cat, suggesting that 5-HT plays an important role in modulation of sleep. Although it might be expected that 5-HT release is also decreased during(More)
The mechanism of the antinociceptive action of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is not fully understood. It was reported that N(2)O induces opioid peptide release in the rat midbrain, which can activate the descending inhibitory system in the spinal cord. Although effects of N(2)O on the noradrenergic descending inhibitory system have been established, effects of(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanism of the antinociceptive effects of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) has not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, numerous studies have indicated that mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons, which are thought to be involved in rewarding and reinforcement processes, play important roles in the supraspinal pain-suppression system. We(More)
BACKGROUND Nociceptin is the endogenous agonist of the opioid receptor-like (ORL) 1 receptor (NOP), and both nociceptin and NOP are widely expressed in the brain and spinal cord, which are target organs of general anaesthetics. As nociceptin has been reported to be involved in modulating pain mechanisms and stress responses, it is possible that the activity(More)
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