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The apparent movement path (AMP) of a circularly moving spot pursued by the eyes (spot A) and of another stationary or circularly moving spot (spot B) were examined. Experimental variables were speed of rotation; number of rotations; position of the stationary spot (experiment) 1) and phase angle between rotation of spot A and B (experiment 2). The AMP of(More)
The fluctuation theorem (FT), which is a recent achievement in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, has been suggested to be useful for measuring the driving forces of motor proteins. As an example of this application, we performed single-molecule experiments on F1-ATPase, which is a rotary motor protein, in which we measured its rotary torque by taking(More)
Vacuolar-type H+-pumping ATPases (V-ATPases) perform remarkably diverse functions in eukaryotic organisms. They are present in the membranes of many organelles and regulate the pH of several intracellular compartments. A family of V-ATPases is also present in the plasma membranes of some bacteria. Such V-ATPases function as ATP-synthases. Each V-ATPase is(More)
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