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Sequential processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by membrane-bound proteases, BACE1 and gamma-secretase, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease. Much has been discovered on the properties of these proteases; however, regulatory mechanisms of enzyme-substrate interaction in neurons and their involvement in pathological changes(More)
The transactivation response element (TAR) DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a nuclear protein that normally regulates transcription and splicing. Abnormal accumulation of insoluble inclusions containing TDP-43 has been recently reported in the affected tissues of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Here, we show that intracellular aggregation of(More)
Dominant mutations in FUS/TLS cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), where abnormal accumulation of mutant FUS proteins in cytoplasm has been observed as a major pathological change. Many of pathogenic mutations have been shown to deteriorate the nuclear localization signal in FUS and thereby facilitate cytoplasmic mislocalization of(More)
BACE1 (beta-secretase) is a transmembrane aspartic protease that cleaves the beta-amyloid precursor protein and generates the amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). BACE1 cycles between the cell surface and the endosomal system many times and becomes activated interconvertibly during its cellular trafficking, leading to the production of Abeta. Here we report the(More)
A pathological hallmark of the Huntington's disease (HD) is intracellular inclusions containing a huntingtin (Htt) protein with an elongated polyglutamine tract. Aggregation of mutant Htt causes abnormal protein-protein interactions, and the functional dysregulation of aggregate-interacting proteins (AIPs) has been proposed as a pathomechanism of HD.(More)
Abnormal protein accumulation is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases, including accumulation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dominant mutations in the TDP-43 gene are causative for familial ALS; however, the relationship between mutant protein biochemical phenotypes and disease course and(More)
Dominant mutations in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), and aggregation of mutant SOD1 has been proposed to play a role in neurodegeneration. A growing body of evidence suggests that fALS-causing mutations destabilize the native structure of SOD1, leading to aberrant protein interactions for(More)
Sodium channel beta4 is a very recently identified auxiliary subunit of the voltage-gated sodium channels. To find the primarily affected gene in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis, we profiled HD transgenic mice using a high-density oligonucleotide array and identified beta4 as an expressed sequence tag (EST) that was significantly down-regulated in(More)
More than 100 different mutations in Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are linked to a familial form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Pathogenic mutations facilitate fibrillar aggregation of SOD1, upon which significant structural changes of SOD1 have been assumed; in general, however, a structure of protein aggregate remains obscure. Here, we have(More)
Neuronal activity has an impact on beta cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by BACE1 to generate amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect remain to be elucidated. Cholesterol dependency of beta cleavage prompted us to analyze immunoisolated APP-containing detergent-resistant membranes from rodent brains.(More)