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The regulation of actin dynamics is pivotal for cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis and thus is crucial for neutrophils to fulfill their roles in innate immunity. Many factors have been implicated in signal-induced actin polymerization, but the essential nature of the potential negative modulators are still poorly(More)
Neutrophil chemotaxis plays an essential role in innate immunity, but the underlying cellular mechanism is still not fully characterized. Here, using a small-molecule functional screening, we identified NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species as key regulators of neutrophil chemotactic migration. Neutrophils with pharmacologically inhibited oxidase,(More)
Neutrophil chemotaxis is a critical component in innate immunity. Recently, using a small-molecule functional screening, we identified NADPHoxidase- dependent Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) as key regulators of neutrophil chemotactic migration. Neutrophils depleted of ROS form more frequent multiple pseudopodia and lost their directionality as they migrate(More)
The recruitment and activation of neutrophils at infected tissues is essential for host defense against invading microorganisms. However, excessive neutrophil recruitment or activation can also damage the surrounding tissues and cause unwanted inflammation. Hence, the responsiveness of neutrophils needs to be tightly regulated. In this study, we have(More)
Neutrophil spontaneous death plays essential roles in neutrophil homeostasis and resolution of inflammation, whereas the underlying molecular mechanisms are still ill-defined. Neutrophils die because of programmed cell death or apoptosis. However, treatment with inhibitor of caspases, which are responsible for the majority of apoptotic cell deaths, does not(More)
Many neutrophil functions are regulated by phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3) that mediates protein membrane translocation via binding to pleckstrin homolog (PH) domains within target proteins. Here we show that inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4,5)P4), a cytosolic small molecule, bound the same PH domain of target(More)
BACKGROUND Allergen immunotherapy is currently the only disease-modifying treatment available for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVES We sought to evaluate the induction of sustained tolerance to allergen when anti-IL-4 was combined with a suboptimal course of grass pollen subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) using the allergen-induced skin(More)
Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP(3)) is a second messenger that is involved in a number of cell activities including cell growth, proliferation, and motility. PIP(3) is produced by PI3K and regulated by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) and SHIP lipid phosphatases. Evidence from our experiments shows that enhanced(More)
The second messenger phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P(3) (PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)) is formed by stimulation of various receptors, including G protein-coupled receptors and integrins. The lipid phosphatases PTEN and SHIP1 are critical in regulating the level of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) during chemotaxis. Observations that loss of PTEN had minor and loss of SHIP1 resulted in(More)
Cancer cells in their respective microenvironments must endure various growth-constraining stresses. Under these conditions, the cancer cell-derived factors are thought to modulate the signaling pathways between cell growth and dormancy. Here, we describe a cancer cell-derived regulatory system that modulates the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K)-Akt(More)