Learn More
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind pathogen-specific ligands early in infection, initiating signaling pathways that lead to expression of multiple protective cellular genes. Many viruses have evolved strategies that block the effector mechanisms induced through these signaling pathways, but viral interference with critical proximal receptor interactions has(More)
Residents of the Tibetan Plateau show heritable adaptations to extreme altitude. We sequenced 50 exomes of ethnic Tibetans, encompassing coding sequences of 92% of human genes, with an average coverage of 18x per individual. Genes showing population-specific allele frequency changes, which represent strong candidates for altitude adaptation, were(More)
Virus-responsive signaling pathways that induce alpha/beta interferon production and engage intracellular immune defenses influence the outcome of many viral infections. The processes that trigger these defenses and their effect upon host permissiveness for specific viral pathogens are not well understood. We show that structured hepatitis C virus (HCV)(More)
Chinese indigenous pig breeds are recognized as an invaluable component of the world's pig genetic resources and are divided traditionally into six types. Twenty-six microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) and ISAG (International Society of Animal Genetics) were employed to analyze the genetic diversity of 18(More)
Persistent infections with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are likely to depend on viral inhibition of host defenses. We show that the HCV NS3/4A serine protease blocks the phosphorylation and effector action of interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3), a key cellular antiviral signaling molecule. Disruption of NS3/4A protease function by mutation or a ketoamide(More)
Coronaviruses encode multifunctional proteins that are critical for viral replication and for blocking the innate immune response to viral infection. One such multifunctional domain is the coronavirus papain-like protease (PLP), which processes the viral replicase polyprotein, has deubiquitinating (DUB) activity, and antagonizes the induction of type I(More)
Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3) senses double-stranded RNA, initiating signaling that activates NF-kappaB and interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), thereby inducing the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, type I interferons, and numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). This pathway has not been extensively investigated in human hepatocytes, and its(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The mechanisms of liver injury in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are poorly understood. Indirect evidence suggests that oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury play a role. The aim of this study was to determine if the HCV core protein itself alters mitochondrial function and contributes to oxidative stress. METHODS HCV core(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human pathogen that infects 170 million people. A hallmark of HCV is its ability to establish persistent infections reflecting the evasion of host immunity and interference with alpha/beta-IFN innate immune defenses. We demonstrate that disruption of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) signaling by the viral NS3/4A(More)
Findings are reported from a collaborative research project on the experience of epilepsy and treatment among patients and family members in Shanxi and Ningxia Provinces in China. Family, marriage, financial and moral consequences of the social experience of epilepsy support the conceptualization of chronic illness as possessing a social course. Beyond(More)