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Embryonic germ (EG) cells are cultured pluripotent stem cells derived from the primordial germ cells (PGCs) that migrate from the dorsal mesentery of the hindgut to the developing genital ridge. In this study, the morphology of the porcine genital ridge was assessed in embryos harvested on days 22-30 of pregnancy. PGCs from embryos at these stages were(More)
Since cloned pig was successfully produced, a new opportunity for porcine breeding industry to conserve genetic resources has been opened. However, there has been no report to investigate whether both somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) pigs and their offspring have the characteristics of the donor breed. In this study, we compared the reproductive and(More)
Genetically modified pigs have become a popular model system in fundamental research, agricultural and biomedical applications. However, random integration often result in unstable expression of transgene and unpredictable phenotypes. The Rosa26 locus has been widely used to produce genetic modified animals with high and consistent expressing of transgene(More)
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis is a powerful tool to generate mutants on a large scale efficiently, and to discover genes with novel functions at the whole-genome level in Caenorhabditis elegans, flies, zebrafish and mice, but it has never been tried in large model animals. We describe a successful systematic three-generation ENU mutagenesis(More)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is an assisted reproductive technique that can produce multiple copies of excellent livestock. However, low cloning efficiency limits the application of SCNT. In this study, we systematically investigated the major influencing factors related to the overall cloning efficiency in pigs. Here, 13620 cloned embryos derived(More)
The aim of this study was to optimize electrofusion conditions for generating porcine tetraploid (4n) embryos and produce tetraploid/diploid (4n/2n) chimeric embryos. Different electric field intensities were tested and 2 direct current (DC) pulses of 0.9 kV/cm for 30 μs was selected as the optimum condition for electrofusion of 2-cell embryos to produce 4n(More)
Morphogenesis and identification of embryonic differentiation in porcine embryos are crucial issues for developmental biology and laboratory animal science. The current paper presents a study on the asynchronous development of hatched porcine embryos from days 7 to 13 post-insemination. Examination of semi-thin sections of the hypoblast showed that it had(More)
γ-Linolenic acid (GLA), stearidonic acid (SDA), and other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important roles in human health, and Δ6 fatty acid desaturase (D6D) is a key enzyme for PUFA biosynthesis. Oenothera biennis is a traditional GLA-producing oil crop. Here we report the cloning, characterization, and metabolic engineering of its D6D gene(More)
In this paper, we introduce the Top Limited uncertain interest, and define it as a kind of exotic options. Then we propose a method to valuate the options with Monte Carlo Simulation. We demonstrate a real example from one of China venture capital policies. Our work enriches the exotic option theory, and it’s a remarkable step towards the quantitative(More)