Kuang-Yao Lo

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As the dimensions of devices are shrunk quickly, the requirements of metallization become more critical. For VIA barrier and seeding layer filling and deposition, the process was mostly applied with the copper physical vapor deposition methodology in the back-end of line flow of the interconnection metallization. The criteria for barrier and seeding layer(More)
The island nucleation in the context of heterogeneous thin film growth is often complicated by the growth kinetics involved in the subsequent thermodynamics. We show how the evolution of sputtered Zn island nucleation on Si(111) by magnetron sputtering in a large area can be completely understood as a model system by combining reflective second harmonic(More)
We demonstrate a polarization-independent distortion corrector fabricated using a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) cell placed on the intermediate image plane of an optical system. At low voltage, a hazy PDLC cell scatters the incident rays and redirects the off-axis propagated chief ray. The chief ray approaches the principal point of the lens(More)
We have presented a bistable transflective cholesteric light shutter. The shutter contains dual-frequency cholesteric liquid crystals that incorporate a photocurable monomer. The electro-optical properties and optical microscope images of the shutter were examined. Good correlations between the cholesteric textures and optical properties of the shutters(More)
An all-optical and polarization-independent spatial filter was developed in a vertically-aligned (VA) polymer-stabilized liquid crystal (PSLC) film with a photoconductive (PC) layer. This spatial filter is based on the effect of light on the conductivity of PC layer: high (low)-intensity light makes the conductivity of the PC layer high (low), resulting in(More)
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