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Release of neurotransmitter occurs when synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane. This neuronal exocytosis is triggered by calcium and requires three SNARE (soluble-N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) proteins: synaptobrevin (also known as VAMP) on the synaptic vesicle, and syntaxin and SNAP-25 on the plasma membrane.(More)
Calcium-dependent synaptic vesicle exocytosis requires three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor) proteins: synaptobrevin/vesicle-associated membrane protein in the vesicular membrane and syntaxin and SNAP-25 in the presynaptic membrane. The SNAREs form a thermodynamically stable complex that is believed to drive(More)
Three evolutionarily conserved proteins known as SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptors) mediate exocytosis from single cell eukaryotes to neurons. Among neuronal SNAREs, syntaxin and SNAP-25 (synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa) reside on the plasma membrane, whereas synaptobrevin resides on synaptic(More)
Patients who have cataract surgery under topical local anaesthetic can have colourful visual experiences. Here two such patients share their paintings inspired by what they saw Cataract extraction is common, often done under topical local anaesthesia using modern small incision surgery. Patients are fully conscious during the procedure and can have(More)
The SNARE (soluble N -ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor) family of proteins is essential for membrane fusion in intracellular traffic in eukaryotic organisms. v-SNAREs (vesicular SNAREs) must engage target SNAREs in the opposing membrane to form the fusogenic SNARE complex. Temporal and spatial control of membrane fusion is(More)
Since quantal release was first described, it has been clear that release of neurotransmitters is a stochastic process. Modulation of neurotransmitter release probability by regulatory factors likely affects the transfer of information within the nervous system. Although many rules governing release probabilities at the synapse have been discovered, their(More)
RfaH activates horizontally acquired operons that encode lipopolysaccharide core components, pili, toxins, and capsules. Unlike its paralog NusG, which potentiates Rho-mediated silencing, RfaH strongly inhibits Rho. RfaH is recruited to its target operons via a network of contacts with an elongating RNA polymerase (RNAP) and a specific DNA element called(More)
To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with(More)
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