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Dendritic spines undergo actin-based growth and shrinkage during synaptic plasticity, in which the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family of actin-associated proteins are important. Elevated ADF/cofilin activities often lead to reduced spine size and immature spine morphology but can also enhance synaptic potentiation in some cases. Thus,(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs) are exceptionally well adapted to subserve diverse physiological roles, from epithelial fluid transport to sensory transduction, because their gating is cooperatively controlled by the interplay between ionotropic and metabotropic signals. A molecular understanding of the dual regulation of CaCCs by voltage and Ca(2+)(More)
RATIONALE Ca2+ -activated Cl channels play pivotal roles in the cardiovascular system. They regulate vascular smooth muscle tone and participate in cardiac action potential repolarization in some species. Ca2+ -activated Cl channels were recently discovered to be encoded by members of the anoctamin (Ano, also called Tmem16) superfamily, but the mechanisms(More)
Ca(2+)-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) perform many important functions in cell physiology including secretion of fluids from acinar cells of secretory glands, amplification of olfactory transduction, regulation of cardiac and neuronal excitability, mediation of the fast block to polyspermy in amphibian oocytes, and regulation of vascular tone. Although a(More)
This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the bestrophins, a newly identified family of proteins that can function both as Cl(-) channels and as regulators of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. The founding member, human bestrophin-1 (hBest1), was identified as the gene responsible for a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular(More)
Anion transport by the colonic mucosa maintains the hydration and pH of the colonic lumen, and its disruption causes a variety of diarrheal diseases. Cholinergic agonists raise cytosolic Ca2+ levels and stimulate anion secretion, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Cholinergic stimulation of anion secretion may occur via activation of(More)
Mutations in the bestrophin-1 (Best1) gene are linked to several kinds of macular degeneration in both humans and dogs. Although bestrophins have been shown clearly to be Cl(-) ion channels, it is controversial whether Cl(-) channel dysfunction can explain the diseases. It has been suggested that bestrophins are multifunctional proteins: they may regulate(More)
The Ca(2+)-activated Cl channel anoctamin-1 (Ano1; Tmem16A) plays a variety of physiological roles, including epithelial fluid secretion. Ano1 is activated by increases in intracellular Ca(2+), but there is uncertainty whether Ca(2+) binds directly to Ano1 or whether phosphorylation or additional Ca(2+)-binding subunits like calmodulin (CaM) are required.(More)
Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD, also called Best’s disease) is a dominantly inherited, juvenile-onset form of macular degeneration, which is characterized by abnormal accumulation of yellow pigment in the outer retina and a depressed electro-oculogram light peak (LP). Over 100 disease-causing mutations in human bestrophin-1 (hBest1) are closely(More)
Bestrophins (VMD2, VMD2L1, VMD2L2, and VMD2L3) are a new family of anion channels. The mechanisms of their regulation are not yet well understood. Recently, we found that a domain (amino acids 356-364) in the C terminus of mouse VMD2L3 (mBest3) inhibited channel activity when it was expressed in HEK293 cells (Qu, Z., Cui, Y., and Hartzell, H. C. (2006) FEBS(More)